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Efectele crizei economice asupra vieţii de cuplu

O parte dintre efectele crizei financiare sunt evidente atunci când deschizi portofelul sau mergi la bancă, însă criza poate avea efecte puternice şi asupra vieţii de cuplu.

În perioadele dificile, scăderea veniturilor poate afecta profund viaţa de cuplu şi de familie.

Pentru cuplurile tinere, criza poate însemna amânarea unor învestiţii într-un cămin sau o maşină, în timp ce pentru o familie cu copii, scăderea veniturilor poate afecta viiitorul celor mici.

Comunicarea bate criza

Reducerea cheltuielilor pentru ajustarea bugetului familiei trebuie făcută în consens de ambii parteneri. Stabiliţi împreună priorităţile şi respectaţi-le. Pe vreme de criza, cumpărăturile impulsive nu-şi mai au locul.

Scăderea veniturilor poate duce chiar la schimbarea stilului de viaţă al unui cuplu, moment în care relaţiile din interes au mari şanse să se destrame.

Pentru cele mai multe cupluri, criza înseamnă mai puţin timp petrecut împreună. Fie că e vorba de activităţi suplimentare pentru a câştiga mai mulţi bani sau de ore suplimentare neplătite pentru a evita o eventuală disponibilizare, criza îşi spune cuvântul asupra relaţiei.
Nivelul ridicat de stres poate fi echilibrat doar de petrecerea plăcută a timpului împreună. Când ai mai puţin timp la dispoziţie pentru partenerul tău, încearcă să faci fiecare clipă să conteze.
O mângâiere sau o încurajare nu te costă şi pot avea un efect puternic atunci când unul dintre parteneri este descurajat de problemele cotidiene.

În perioadele dificile financiar, multe cupluri ajung să se certe mai des sau chiar să se despartă. Renunţă la acuzaţii şi încearcă să transformi orice ceartă într-o discuţie constructivă.

Comunicarea este foarte importantă într-un cuplu pentru a depăşi obstacolele de ordin financiar. Odată ce stabiliţi împreună bugetul de criza, respectaţi-l şi vezi depăşi cu bine această perioadă.

Copiii şi criza

Criza economică poate fi deosebit de dificilă şi pentru copii. Este important ca atunci când veniturile scad să porţi o discuţie cu copiii în care să le explici situaţia în care se află familia.
Explică-le că, pentru o vreme, vor trebui să se mulţumească cu mai puţin, dar că au în continuare la dispoziţie bunăvoinţa părinţilor pentru a rezolva orice problemă sau dorinţă pe care ar putea-o avea.
Este foarte important ca ambii părinţi să aibă aceeaşi atitudine în faţa copiilor. Dacă unul dintre părinţi le mai dă bani fără ca celălalt să ştie, copiii vor înţelege că pot să ceară oricând mai mult decât ştiu că pot primi.

Dacă înşeli încrederea partenerului şi el va afla, rişti un conflict de proporţii în familie pe timp de criza.

Violenţa conjugală

Deşi psihologii evită să admită existenţa unei cauzalităţi directe între criza economică şi creşterea numărului de incidente de violenţă conjugală, numărul victimelor a crescut în ultimii doi ani la nivel mondial. Pierderea locului de muncă duce la un nivel ridicat de stres, care poate duce unii bărbaţi la violenţă verbală sau chiar fizică.

Conform datelor Agenţiei Naţionale pentru Protecţia Familiei, în 2009, 45 de românce au murit din cauza violenţei în familie.
Majoritatea victimelor violenţei au fost femei şi fete din grupele de vârsta 0-14 (17,69%), 25-35 (14,25%) şi 35-45 ani (16,16%).
Multe victime ale violenţei conjugale nu raportează însă incidentele, mai ales atunci când depind financiar de agresor.

În România, în 2009, peste 30% dintre victimele violenţei în familie de sex feminin au declarat că au suferit o agresiune zilnică, iar aproape 25% au suferit o agresiune săptămânală.

Sursa: http://familie-relatii.acasa.ro/relatii-de-familie/efectele-crizei-economice-asupra-vietii-de-cuplu-145441.html

Luarea mesei in familie, izvor de bunatate

Intr-o vreme in care dragostea a inceput sa scada, comunicarea dintre membrii familiei adesea intampina greutati, iar mersul la fast-food a devenit o adevarata moda, raportarea cuviincioasa la mancare, precum si luarea mesei in comun, in mijlocul familiei, a ajuns sa fie vazuta ca un lucru depasit, daca nu chiar rusinos. Pentru aceasta, astazi, omul mananca adesea singur, in graba, oriunde, oricum si oricand.

Sa nu luam in ras lucrurile pe care parintii nostri le considerau si le simteau a fi sfinte. Nu putini sunt cei care au ajuns sa vada luarea mesei in comun astfel: „Pentru ce tin oamenii mortis sa ia masa in familie? Hai, de Craciun, de Pasti, mai inteleg. Dar eu sunt obisnuit sa iau masa in liniste. La mine in familie nu se vorbeste la masa. Daca mananc singur sau cu ai mei este exact acelasi lucru. Masa este un act administrativ, de mentenanta, este ceva necesar, este satisfacerea unei nevoi; nu e nimic sfant in asta.”

Din ce in ce mai putini oameni se bucura de o masa luata in tihna casei lor, impreuna cu familia. O parte nu mai au timp, o alta parte prefera sa stea cu prietenii decat cu familia, iar o alta parte comporta rusinea de „a fi invechit”. Masa este una dintre bucuriile reale ale inimii omului, de cand lumea. Din pacate insa, vrand sa fie moderne, din ce in ce mai putine familii calca pe urmele „bine batatorite” ale familiei traditionale.

Oricat s-ar schimba insa mintea omului, mancarea si luarea mesei in comun vor ramane pentru totdeauna ceva cu mult mai inalt si mai profund decat ne putem da seama. Luarea mesei in familie, ori impreuna cu cei apropiati, se va face intotdeauna izvor de liniste, de bucurie si de comuniune, deoarece nu pot sta la aceeasi masa cei dezbinati, precum nici cei straini sufleteste unul de celalalt.

Sederea la masa, cel dintai si cel mai de pe urma lucru

Deschizand prima carte a Sfintei Scripturi, putem spune ca istoria lumii incepe cu „o invitatie la masa”. Astfel, dupa ce Dumnezeu l-a creat pe om, El l-a indemnat, zicandu-i: „Din toti pomii din rai poti sa mananci, iar din pomul cunostintei binelui si raului sa nu mananci, caci, in ziua in care vei manca din el, vei muri negresit!” (Facerea 2, 16-17) Vedem cum, inca dintru inceput, se face o distintie clara intre mancarea care uneste, dand viata, si mancarea care dezbina, omorand.

Parcurgand celelalte carti ale Sfintei Scripturi, putem vedea cu usurinta cum mai toate marile evenimente se petrec in jurul mesei. Astfel, dreptul Avraam ii aseaza pe Ingeri la masa, unde si primeste de la Acestia fadaduinta nasterii unui fiu (Facere 18, 1-16). De asemenea, toate intalnirile de cinste erau sarbatorite cu asezarea unei mese. Cand tatal (Dumnezeu), il vede pe Fiul cel Risipitor (omul) intorcandu-se acasa, randuieste imediat masa: „Aduceti vitelul cel ingrasat si-l injunghiati si, mancand, sa ne veselim” (Luca 15, 23).

Mantuitorul Iisus Hristos poposea adesea la mesele celor din vremea lui, precum citim: „Iar carturarii si fariseii, vazandu-L ca mananca impreuna cu vamesii si pacatosii, ziceau catre ucenicii Lui: De ce mananca si bea Invatatorul vostru cu vamesii si pacatosii? Dar, auzind, Iisus le-a zis: Nu cei sanatosi au nevoie de doctor, ci cei bolnavi” (Marcu 2, 16-17). Nu putine minuni a savarsit Mantuitorul la masa, acesta fiind un moment prielnic pentru a vorbi inimii omului. Cina cea de Taina este cea mai sfanta „masa” luata de Mantuitorul, impreuna cu ucenicii Sai, „masa” la care ne cheama si pe noi. Astfel, Hristos se da pe Sine drept hrana datatoare de viata.

Deschizand ultima carte a Sfintei Scripturi, intalnim iarasi „o invitatie la masa”, precum citim: „Iata, Eu stau la usa si bat; de va auzi cineva glasul Meu si va deschide usa, voi intra la el si voi cina cu el si el cu Mine (Aocalipsa 3, 20). De asemenea, vesnicia este si ea exprimata sub chipul unei cine, la care suntem neincetat chemati: „Fericiti cei chemati la cina nuntii Mielului” (Apocalipsa 19, 9).

Luarea mesei in familie, izvor de bunatate

Luarea mesei in comun, impreuna cu familia sau cu cei apropiati, este unul dintre acele lucruri care amintesc de sfintenia zilei, este una dintre bucuriile simple ale omului curat, este un semn al unui suflet sanatos. Luarea mesei in comun este un moment de apropiere, de blandete si de vulnerabilitate, fiecare trebuind sa fie cu adevarat prezent, atent si personal: la masa, fiecare il priveste in ochi pe celalalt; la masa nu este loc de ascunzisuri, de retrageri sau de pretexte. A sta la masa impreuna cu oameni cu care nu ai nimic in comun sau fata de care inima ta nu se deschide, este un adevarat chin.

Atat de viclean este „stapanitorul acestei lumi”, incat a reusit sa strice pana si cele mai marunte bucurii din viata de familie, pe care atat de mult o uraste. Orasul parca a sugrumat randuielile sanatoase ale parintilor nostri, cu care, uneori, parca ne si este rusine sa ne asemanam. Astfel, omul de la oras pune prea usor luarea mesei in comun pe seama taranilor, care „nu prea aveau multe de facut”.

Lucrurile stau insa altfel: cel ce nu a simtit nici macar pentru o singura data odihna unei mesei luate in familie, ori impreuna cu cei iubiti ai sai, nu va intelege niciodata sfatul/indemnul de a nu trece cu vederea acest izvor de intarire a unitatii familiei, de impacare cu cei de langa noi, de solidaritate si de comunicare.

Desi unele lucruri se schimba, nu trebuie sa fim de acord cu schimbarea (inlocuirea) anumitor randuieli sanatoase. Daca bucuria mesei in comun se pierde, nici o alta nu ii poate lua locul, in aceeasi masura si cu aceleasi roade.

Pentru multi dintre noi, furati de agitatia vietii de zi cu zi, luarea mesei nu mai are nimic sfant; a devenit un act banal prin care ne satisfacem o simpla necesitate trupeasca. Daca masa nu mai este prilej de comuniune cu cei din familiile noastre, cu atat mai putin, ea se va face prilej de comuniune cu Dumnezeu. Mancam fara sa-L purtam in noi pe Domnul, „Cel ce da hrana la tot trupul”.

Daca nici in familie nu ne mai putem aduna, rabda si bucura unul de celalalt, ce pretentii sa mai avem de la restul lumii. Cum sa ne adunam cu totii, in Biserica lui Hristos, in duh de pace, daca in familie nu mai reusim sa fim una?! Din familie incep toate cele bune, din familia in care se odihneste Hristos.

Dragostea fiecaruia fata de ceilalti se masoara in clipele petrecute impreuna, iar masa, care nu poate fi ocolita, este un moment deosebit de important in aceasta privinta. Oriunde ar exista deci familia, luarea mesei in comun comporta aceeasi importanta, ca moment al intalnirii, al vederii si al bucuriei reciproce.

Luarea mesei in comun nu trebuie sa fie vazuta ca si o obligatie, ci mai ales ca „o gura de aer personalizator”, intr-o atmosfera din ce in ce mai impersonala. In vremurile noastre, cand serviciul si timpul limitat ne indeparteaza chiar si de cei dragi, o cina luata impreuna cu toti cei al casei este o adevarata punte de legatura cu lumea reala. In asemenea momente se revitalizeaza cu adevarat relatia personala dintre membrii familiei.

Masa este locul intalnirii si al comuniunii. Masa este locul unde toti se aduna, toti ajuta, toti lucreaza, unul facand ceva si altul altceva. Masa este locul unde fiecare se odihneste in celalalt, dupa o zi de munca sau invatat, dupa o calatorie sau inaintea unei plecari. Masa luata in familie trebuie sa fie si o rugaciune de multumire si slava adusa lui Dumnezeu, pentru nenumaratele daruri primite.

Masa in famile este o adevarata binecuvantare, atat pentru parinti, cat si pentru copii, care vor ramane cu aceste frumoase amintiri despre „acasa”. Ce poate fi mai frumos decat starea aceea de bucurie, de comuninune, pe care o simti cand toti cei dragi sunt langa tine?! Din pacate, insa, doar cel care a trait aceasta bucurie o poate intelege. Cred ca numai acela care a fost odihnit in vechea familie va naste si in noua familie un asemenea loc de comuniune, de odihna si de dragoste.

Consider ca o familie care nu se aduna impreuna, macar o data in zi, sufera de o rana ascunsa. Atunci cand masa nu se mai ia impreuna in familie, intreaga familie sufera in mod inconstient, intreaga familie ajunge sa simta o lipsa neinteleasa, cu totii ajung sa se simta, mai mult sau mai putin, singuri. Dintre familiile pe care le cunosc, cele mai frumoase si mai odihnitoare sunte acelea care petrec timp impreuna, in pofida tuturor programelor diferite si a varstei membrilor ei.

Luarea mesei impreuna cu familia, macar o data in zi, poate deveni (foarte usor) factor de unitate si intarire a dragostei. Pentru aceasta insa este esential ce facem in timpul zilei. Un om care sta numai la calculator si la TV, ori numai in vreo pasiune care-l izoleaza comuniunii cu ceilalti, nu se va putea simti niciodata odihnit la o masa luata in familie, unde monitorul lipseste, unde zgomotul sportului este absent, unde stirile si emisunile TV nu se mai aud, iar singurul lucru care ramane de facut este mancatul si privitul in ochii celor adunati laolalta.

Daca ne-am umple ziua numai cu lucruri bune, intalnirea din vremea mesei ar fi o urmare fireasca a acestora, deci tot un lucru bun, un moment de impartasire a fiecaruia de ceilalti. Cum ar fi o cina luata in familie, daca fiecare ar injura si ar vorbi numai despre stiri si sport, numai despre accidente si drame ale „star-urilor”?! Nu ar fi oare aceasta o parodie ciudata a ceea ce ar insemna de fapt „luarea mesei in familie”?!

Deci, modul in care ne petrecem ziua poate atrage dupa sine clipe odihnitoare si binefacatoare aproape de cei dragi ai casei. Inceputul cel bun se pune astfel: „Trage-ti un scaun la masa, inchide televizorul, lasa telefonul de o parte si ai sa vezi ca intri intr-o alta dimensiune!” Daca aceasta „dimensiune” va fi odihnitoare sau nu, aceasta tine numai de tine, si anume de ceea ce ai in launtrul tau.

Teodor Danalache

Sursa: http://www.crestinortodox.ro/diverse/luarea-mesei-familie-izvor-bunatate-125672.html

Cartea parintelui Paisie Aghioritul-„Viata de familie” poate fi descarcata de aici: Viata-de-Familie-de-Parintele-Paisie-Aghioritul

CODUL LUI HAMURABI (in engleza)
-una din primele legiferari ale casatoriei-

Ce intelegeau cei din trecut din institutia casatoriei si ce intelegem noi astazi?

REV. HENRY MASON BAUM, D.C.L. »*» MR. FREDERICK BENNETT WRIGHT

Editor Assistant Editor

NlARCH, 1903

CONTENTS ■

I. Frontispiece, Hammtirabi Receiving; the Laws from the Sun -god of Sippara 66

II. Editorial Introduction to the Laws of Hammurabi, Kingf of Babylonia . 67

III. Hammurabi’s Introduction to his Code of Laws …….. 68

IV. Hammurabi’s Code of Laws …. . .69

V. Hammurabi’s Conclusion … 88

VI. Cuneiform Text of Hammurabi’s Laws (Plates I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) 9i

Copyright^ 19OJ, by Records of the Past Exploration Society. I Entered at the Washington Post Office as Second-Class Matter.

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Address all communications to

RECORDS OF THE PAST EXPLORATION SOCIETY,

2J5 Third Street S. E., Washington, D. C.

RECORDS OF THE PAST is printed by Patterson & White Co., 518-520 Ludlow St., Philadelphia

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT

The First Annual Volume, 1902

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RECORDS OF THE PAST

Can be ha^d bound in cloth for 8i2.75.
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Subscribers wishing their copies for 1902 rebound should send them postage paid (l cent for each four ounces) to our
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HAMMURABI RECEIVING THE LAWS FROM THE SUN-GOD OF SIPPARA

RECORDS A-ePAST

VOL. II ■ W 11 PART III

MARCH. 1905
+ + +

THE LAWS OF HAMMURABI, KING OF BABYLONIA

EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION

THE ruins of Susa now being excavated by the distinguished explorer
M. de Morgan have already yielded important results. He was led
to undertake the excavation of ancient Susa from inscriptions found
in the ruins of Babylon, from which he learned that many of the most im-
portant monuments of the Babylonian kings had been carried, as trophies
of war by the Elamite kings, to their capital, Susa. When he left Egypt
in 1888 it was for the purpose of recovering from the ruins of Susa these
monuments. He had not been long at work in Susa before he found the
stele of Naram-Sin c. 3,800 B.C., which showed a high state of art in the
Tigro-Euphrates valley nearly 6,000 years ago. This discovery was rapidly
followed by others. The most important of which is the stele of Hammu-
rabi, upon which was engraved his code of laws, c. 2,250 B.C.

Two translations of this code have been made, one into French by
Scheil, the assyriologist of the French Expedition to Persia, of which M. de
Morgan is the director, and the other into German by Dr. Hugo Winckler.
The following translation is from the latter by Dr. H. Otto Sommer and
construed into legal phraseology by William Earl Ambrose, Esq.

This code is the oldest collection of public laws that has yet been dis-
covered. It is a reflection of the social conditions existing in Babylonia
4,000 years ago. The jurist of to-day will recognize in it most of the funda-
mental principles on which our social legislation is based.

68 RECORDS OF THE PAST

To the biblical student the Code of Hammurabi suggests at once a
comparison with the Laws of Moses, which were written about 700 years
later. But a comparative study of the two codes can only be made by
one conversant with the conditions under which Moses promulgated his
laws for the government of the Hebrew state and church. It has already
been charged that Moses copied from the older code. It must be remem-
bered that in every age and condition of society the great fundamental
principles of jus’tice have been and must remain the same. Therefore when
we find these principles of justice existing in both the laws of Hammurabi
and Moses, we recognize in them the eternal precepts of right and wrong
in human society. Granting this, a further comparison between the two
codes reveals in the latter, a higher and what is and may be claimed to be, a
divine ordering for the higher and spiritual condition of man. That Moses
was familiar with the Laws of Hammurabi and doubtless had studied them
cannot be doubted by anyone conversant with the literary and commercial
intercourse existing between Egypt and Babylonia. The comparison of
the two codes will form the subject of a future article in Records of the

Past

Hammurabi’s introduction to his code of laws

When Anu the sublime, the King of the Annunaki and Bel, the lord of
heaven and earth, who fixed the destiny of the country, had committed
the whole of mankind to Marduk, the son of Ea, the god of right, when
they made him great among the Egigi, had pronounced the sublime name
of Babylon, made it great upon earth, had established in it an eternal king-
dom, the foundations of which are laid firm like heaven and earth, at that
time Anu and Bel called me, Hammurabi, the great prince, who fears God,
to -give justice a status in the country, to destroy the wicked and bad, that
the strong should not overcome the weak, that I might rise over the block-
headed ones; like Shamash, to illuminate the land and to further the
welfare of humanity, Hammurabi, the prince, the one called by Bel, am
I. To obtain riches and superabundance, bringing about everything pos-
sible for Nippur and Durilu, the exalted protection of Ekur; who had
restored Eridu, purified the cult of E-apsu, who fought against the four
regions of the world, made the great name of Babel, brightened the heart
of Marduk, his master; who (Hammurabi) does service in Esagila, the
royal branch which Sin founded, who made rich Ur, the humble and
subservient one, who brings riches to Gish-shir-gal, the wise King, heard
by Shamash, the mighty one, who laid the foundations of Sippar, who
clothed in green the tombs of Malkat, who enlarged E-babbar, which is
like heaven; the warrior who protected Larsa, and renewed E-babbar for
Shamash, his helper, the lord who gave new life to Uruk, who supplied
plenty of water to its inhabitants, who raised the head of E-Anna, com-
pleted the splendor of Anu and Nanna, the protector of the country, who
united the scattered inhabitants of Isin, who richly supplied E-gal-mach,
the protecting city king, brother of the god Zamamma, who firmly founded
the settlement of Kish, surrounded with splendor. E-me-te-ur-sag doubled
the great sanctuaries Nana; manager of the temple of Harsag-kalama, the
grave of the enemies, whose help gains the victory; who enlarged the city of
Cutha; who made splendid everything in E-shid-lam; the black steer who
strikes down the enemies, the favorite of the god Tu-tu; who caused joy to
the population of Borsippa; the sublime one, who is tireless for Ezida. the

LAWS OF HAMMURABI 69

god-like king of the city; the wise one; the clever one, who extended the
agriculture of Dilbat;who piled up grain for Urash, the strong one; the man
to whom belongs the scepter and crown with which he crowns him; the
chosen one of the goddess Mama, who fixed the place of the temple of Kish;
who enriched the holy meals of Nintu, the careful one, who provided the eat-
ing and drinking for Lagash and Girsu; who supplies large offerings for the
temple of 50; who takes hold of the enemies, the chosen one of the oracle;
who carried out the prophecy of Hallab; who caused joy to the heart of
the Annunit, the pure prince, whose prayer is recognized by Adad; who
set at rest the heart of Adad, the warrior in Karkar, and restored the imple-
ments of the culture in Eud-gal-gal; the King, who lent life to the city of
Adab; the director of E-mach; the princely King of the city, irresistible
fighter, who gave life to the population of Mash-kan-shabri; who furnished
superabundance to the temple of Schidlam, the wise, valiant one who forced
the retreat of the bandits; who covered the inhabitants of Malka with mis-
fortune; who founded richly their residence; who established pure offer-
ings for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na; who made his Kingdom great forever;
the princely King of the city, who subjugated the provinces along the
Ud-kib-nun-na canal (Euphrates), according to the commandment of
Dagon, his creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and Tutul; the
exalted prince, who made radiant the countenance of Nina; who set holy
meals before the god Nin-a-zu; who cared for their inhabitants in need,
safely cared for their fortunes in Babylon in peace; the shepherd of the
subjects; the servant, whose deeds are pleasing to Annunit; who pleased
Annunit in the temple Dumasch in the suburb Agade; who proclaims
justice, leads the law, gave back to the city of Assur her gracious patron;
who caused to dwell the name of Istar in Nineveh, in the temple E-mish-
mish; the sublime one, who prostrates himself before the great gods, the
descendant of the Sumu-la-ilu; the mighty son of Sin-muballit; the kingly
seed of eternity; the mighty king; the sun of Babylon, who causes the light
to radiate over the country Sumer and Akkad; the King whom the four
regions of the world obey; the favorite of the god Nini, am I. When Marduk
sent me to rule mankind, to impart judicial protection to the country, it
was that I might establish right, justice and happiness among the people.

Hammurabi’s code of laws

1. Any person convicted of preferring charges against another person
which he cannot substantiate shall be put to death.

2. In event anyone prefers charges against another person and the
one against whom the charge is brought leaps into a body of water and is
thereby drowned, that person who preferred the charge shall thereupon
take possession of the property of the one so drowned. But if the person
against whom the charge is preferred is not drowned, the person who made
the charge shall be put to death and the one accused shall take possession
of the property of his accuser.

3. Any person preferring a charge of malfeasance against a juror
sitting in the case at bar, which charge he is unable to substantiate, and
the hearing being one at the conclusion of which the death penalty may be
adjudged, the person so preferring such charge shall be put to death.

4. Any person attempting to suborn a juror by a bribe of grain or gold
shall be deemed to be guilty of felony and shall receive such punishment as

70 RECORDS OF THE PAST

might be adjudged proper to inflict upon a person guilty of the offence for
which such trial was being conducted. i • •

5. Any judge conducting a trial and rendering a written decision
therein shall receive 12 fold the punishment administered by reason ot his
decision, if the decision is subsequently proved to be erroneous.

6. Any person convicted of the ofifence of selling property stolen either
from the citv or the temple shall be put to death and the person who receives
the stolen goods from such offender shall likewise be put to death.

7. Any person purchasing silver, gold or a slave, either male or female,
a beef or an ass or any other personal property from another person
or from the slave of another person, without witnesses to the transaction
or agreement, shall be adjudged to be a thief and shall be put to death.

8. Any person who without right sells a beef, a sheep, an ass or swine
or other personal property, if it be the property of the temple or of the city,
shall make restitution thereof 30 fold, if it be the property of a freedman,
10 fold; in event such person has nothing with which to make restitution in
accordance with the foregoing provision, he shall be deemed to be a thief
and shall suffer the death penalty.

9. If anyone has lost an article of personal property and discovers it in
the possession of some other person and that person excuses his posses-
sion by the statement that still another person sold it to him in the presence
of witnesses and that he has paid therefor, and thereupon the owner of the
article declares that he is able to bring witnesses to identify his property; it
then becomes incumbent upon the possessor to produce the one whom he
alleged sold him the article and likewise a witness to the transaction of
purchase. The owner shall likewise produce witnesses to substantiate his
ownership and all the witnesses shall proceed before a judge and all the
witnesses being duly put upon their oaths, shall testify to the facts before
the judge. In event the owner proves his property the seller of the article
shall be deemed to be a thief and shall suffer the death penalty. The pur-
chaser shall make restitution of the property to the owner and shall receive
back from the, seller the purchase price.

10. In event of a failure on the part of the purchaser, vendor and the
witnesses before whom he alleges he consummated the transaction to appear
in the case, and the owner does produce witnesses to establish his ownership
in said property, the purchaser, in failing to produce his witnesses to the
transaction and the vendor as aforesaid, shall be adjudged to be a thief and
shall suffer the death penalty. The property shall be restored to the owner.

11. In event of a failure, however, on the part of the claimant of the lost
property to produce at the hearing competent witnesses to estabHsh his
ownership, he shall be deemed guilty of having slandered the purchaser and
shall suffer the death penalty.

12. In event the vendor of property which he has sold without right,
shall die prior to a hearing upon the claim of the owner of the property,
then the vendee shall receive from the estate of the vendor 5 fold the pur-
chase price of the article disposed of to him by the decedent.

13. In event of inability to produce witnesses in such a case at the first
hearing thereon, the judge shall continue the trial of the cause for a period
not to exceed 6 months. In event of failure of either party to produce
witnesses for their respective claims within that period, the one failing so
to do shall be deemed guilty and shall receive such punishment as is herein-
before provided for in such cases.

LAWS OF HAMMURABI 71

14. Anyone adjudged to be guilty of kidnapping shall be put to death.

15. Anyone who shall abduct a slave of the court, or a female slave of
the court, or the male or female slave of a freedman, shall be taken beyond
the city gate and put to death.

16. Anyone harboring a runaway slave, either male or female, of the
court, or of a freedman, and failing to produce him or her on the public
demand of the major domo of the court, or the house of a freedman, upon
conviction thereof shall be deemed guilty of felony and shall sufifer death.

17. Anyone capturing a male or female slave, and returning said male
or female slave to his or her master, shall be compensated by the master to
the extent of 2 shekels of silver.

18. In event a runaway slave shall refuse or fail to name his master,
the person capturing such slave shall produce him before the court where
his identity shall be examined into and upon its being ascertained the slave
shall be returned to his master.

19. Any person capturing a runaway slave and detaining him in his
house and exercising ownership over him, upon conviction thereof shall be
deemed guilty of felony and shall sufifer the death penalty.

20. In event a runaway slave escapes from his captor, the captor shall
make oath to the owner of the slave as to the circumstances, and thereupon
shall be released from any charge by reason of the escape.

21. Anyone seeking to burglarize a house, by breaking into it, shall
be deemed guilty of felony and shall sufifer the death penalty. The execu-
tion shall take place at the point of the breach in the house and he shall be
there interred.

22. Any person convicted of a robbery shall be put to death.

23. In event anyone shall be robbed, and the person committing the
robbery shall escape, the party so deprived of his property shall make claim
under oath, enumerating the property of which he has been robbed, where-
upon the municipality or ( ) wherein said robbery was committed.

shall compensate him for his loss.

24. In the event of the abduction of any person, the municipality or
( ) in which the abduction took place shall pay to the personal rep-
resentatives of the abducted person, i silver „mine.”

25. Any person who shall be present at a fire occurring in the house
of another, and while present at such fire appropriates any article belonging
to the proprietor of the house in which the fire occurs, shall be deemed
guilty of a felony, and as a punishment therefor shall be thrown into the
burning fire.

26. If an ofificer of the king or [drafted] man who has been ordered
to march with the king’s troops, fails so to do and procures a mercenary
or substitute who performs the duty incumbent upon such ofificer, or
[drafted] man and the ofificer or [drafted] man shall die while his mercenary
or substitute is with the king’s troops, thereupon the mercenary or sub-
stitute shall be entitled to take possession of the estate of his deceased
principal.

2″^. If an ofificer or [drafted] man is captured during a reverse of the
king, and during his imprisonment his property is delivered into the hands
of some other person, he shall upon his release and return to his home be
reinstated in the possession of his property.

28. In event of the capture of an ofificer of the king or [drafted] man
upon a defeat sufifered by his king, the officer’s son shall take possession of

72 RECORDS OF THE PAST

his property and that son shall be deemed the proper person to exercise
the control and possession over his father’s field and garden.

29. In event his son [the son of an officer or drafted man] by reason
of his infancy is incapable of taking possession of his father’s property, the
son’s mother shall be given ^ the field and garden of the father and shall
be charged v^rith the maintenance and support of such son until he shall
reach maturity.

30. In event an officer of the king or [drafted] man fails to make
provision for the cultivation of his field, garden and the care of his house,
or gives them in payment to some other person who enters into possession
thereof and occupies the same for the period of 3 years, vs^hereupon such
officer or [drafted] man returns to claim such field, garden or house, the
officer or [drafted] man shall not be deemed the rightful owner, and the
property shall remain in the possession of the person occupying it.

31. In event he [an officer of the king or a man] shall lease his prop-
erty for the period of one year and at the termination of said lease he returns
to take possession of said property, he shall be entitled to the possession
thereof.

32. Any person purchasing the freedom of an officer or man captured
while on a march with his king, shall be repaid the ransom money by the
captured officer or man, in event the officer or man has property or means
sufficient to repay the purchaser of his freedom. In event such ransomed
person has no means by which to repay the person purchasing his freedom,
the municipality in which such captured person has his domicile shall com-
pensate the purchaser of his freedom, the charge therefor to be first made
upon the temple. In event of insufficient funds in the temple to make
payment then the state shall defray the charge. The field, garden and
house of the ransomed officer or man shall not be charged for repayment.

33. Any [officer] or [soldier] who deserts and substitutes a mer-
cenary in his stead and the mercenary goes in his stead, then the deserter
shall be deemed guilty of felony and punished by death.

34. If [officer] or a [soldier] injures the property of the king he shall
be deemed guilty of felony and punished by death. If anyone delivers an
officer of the king into bondage, and in so dehvering the officer into bondage
he bribes one in authority to assist him in the delivery and likewise appro-
priates to his own use property belonging to and bestowed upon the officer
by his king, that wrongdoer shall be deemed guilty of felony and put to
death.

35. Anyone purchasing a beef or small animal given by the king to
an officer [for the officer’s rations] shall forfeit the purchase price.

36. The field, garden and house of a taxpayer cannot be sold [is
exempt from levy].

37. Anyone purchasing a field, garden or house of an officer, soldier
or taxpayer the slate shall be washed [the contract therefor shall be null
and void] and the purchase price shall be refunded’to the owner [and he,
the owner, shall retain his property].

38. A captain, soldier or taxpayer cannot sell the property of his feudal
lord, wife or daughter, or pledge such property for the payment of his debts.

39. He [captain, soldier or taxpayer] may assign the field, garden or
house which he has purchased with his own money and which he possesses
in his own right for the payment of his debts. He may also convey such
property to his wife or daughter.

LAWS OF HAMMURABI 73

40. He [captain, soldier or taxpayer] may sell [lease] to a trader or
employee of the city his field, garden and house for usage.

41. Anyone fencing in the field, garden and house of an officer, soldier
or rentpayer and furnishing the fencing pales therefor shall, upon the return
of the officer, soldier or rentpayer, deliver to him the field, garden or house
and the fencing so erected, and the fencing shall become and be the prop-
erty of the officer, soldier or rentpayer and shall not be taken from the
land of the owner by the erector thereof.

42. Anyone entering into the possession of a field upon agreement
and neglecting to raise grain upon that field shall be held accountable to
the owner thereof for a quantity of grain commensurate with that grown
in the neighboring fields, upon it being shown that he has failed to comply
with the conditions in regard to the cultivation of the land.

43. In event of failure of such a person to cultivate a field he shall be
held accountable to the owner thereof for the payment to him of grain
commensurate with that grown in the neighboring fields and he shall
further be compelled to plow and sow the said field and deliver the field,
so planted and sown, back to its owner.

44. In event the person takes possession of a waste field for the pur-
pose of making it arable, but fails to make the field arable, he shall be com-
pelled to cultivate the barren field in the fourth year [after his having
taken possession of it] , harrow it, seed it and deliver the field to the owner,
and shall be compelled to render to the owner for every 10 „gan” [of grain he
might have raised had he been diligent] 10 „gur” of grain.

45. In event anyone enters into an agreement [leases] for a field and
under that agreement a fixed compensation is paid therefor to the owner,
and bad weather intervenes and destroys the [growing] crop, the loss
shall be borne by the lessee.

46. In event no definite compensation is fixed for the use of the field,
but a proportionate share of the products is agreed upon [for its use],
the lessor and the lessee shall divide the grain cultivated upon that field
in accordance with their agreement (^ or ^).

47. In event the lessee, because of a failure in the first year of his
tenancy to receive maintenance [to raise enough grain for his maintenance]
from the field, notwithstanding his earnest effort to so do, the owner thereof
may not hold him responsible for his share; the field has been tenanted
[and an attempt at cultivation made] and at the next harvest the owner
shall receive grain in accordance with his agreement.

48. Anyone leasing a field which is devastated by tempest or by a
drought is not compelled to account to the owner for his share of grain
during that year, the slate is dissolved in water [the obligation is annulled]
and an accounting is to be had for that year at the termination of the
succeeding one.

49. Any person leasing a tillable field to a business man and borrowing
money from him, and at the same time directing the business man to culti-
vate the field and to plant thereon grain or sesame and to harvest grain
raised thereon for his benefit, and the business man or his subtenant raises
upon the field grain or sesame, the person so leasing to the business man
shall, at the harvest, receive the grain and sesame which are raised upon the
field and pay to the business man grain for the money advanced by him,
besides interest on such money advanced by the business man, and shall in
addition thereto give to the business man such grain as is necessary for the

74 RECORDS OF THE PAST

sustenance of the business man or such cultivator of the soil as has been
employed by the business man for the purpose of raising grain upon his
field. [Provide for maintenance of the laborers who actually do the work.]

50. If anyone borrows money upon a cultivated grainfield or culti-
vated sesame field he shall receive the grain or sesame which is grown upon
that field. He shall pay back to the person making him the loan the
money borrowed, with interest.

51. In event he is unable to repay the loan or money borrowed, he
shall deliver to the lender grain or sesame [equal in value] to the amount
of the sum borrowed, with interest, in accordance with the rate of interest
provided by the royal tarifif [legal rate].

52. In event anyone borrows money upon a field and fails to raise
grain or sesame whereby to repay his creditors, his indebtedness is not
extinguished.

53. Anyone failing to keep his [irrigating] dam in repair and through
his neglect and laziness a break occurs in the dam and his neighbors’ lands
are flooded by the overflow of the water therefrom, he shall compensate the
owner of the damaged land for his loss of grain or other property [occa-
sioned by the overflow].

54. In event he is unable to repay or make good the damage incurred
by his neglect, his property is to be sold and those incurring damage
through his negligence are to divide his property among themselves in
accordance with the extent of the several losses occasioned by his neg-
ligence.

55. If anyone opens his canal for the purpose of irrigation [in a neg-
ligent manner] and thereby floods the fields [of his neighbors] shall be
held to account to those neighbors and to pay them grain corresponding
with their [the neighbors’] loss.

56. Anyone negligently and maliciously found to be guilty of flooding
his neighbor’s tillable fields shall measure out to that neighbor „gan” for
every 10 „gur” of grain [destroyed thereby] .

57. Any shepherd who, without the permission of the owner of a field,
permits his cattle to graze upon another’s field, shall permit the owner of
the field upon which his cattle have grazed, to harvest his [the shepherd’s]
field and shall pay in addition thereto [to the owner of the devastated field]
20 „gur” of grain for every 10 „gan” destroyed by his wrong doing.

58. In event a shepherd, after his herd has left the general pasture
and been coralled at the city gate, allows them to graze upon the field of
another, that shepherd shall be compelled to keep that field which he has
allowed his cattle to graze upon [in exchange for his own] and at the
harvest time shall pay to the owner of the devastated field, for every 10
„gan,” 60 „gur” of grain [destroyed by his wrong doing].

59. Anyone trespassing upon the land of another and cutting wood
therefrom, shall pay to the owner thereof ^ „mine” of gold.

60. Anyone intrusting to a gardener a field [uncultivated] in order
that it may be planted as a garden and the gardener thereupon enters upon
the field and cultivates it and cares for it for a period of 4 years, the culti-
vator and the owner thereof shall divide with one another at the end of
the fifth year the products of the field.

61. In event the gardener does not complete the planting of the field
and leaves a part uncultivated [at the end of the fourth year] the unculti-

LAWS OF HAMMURABI 75

vated part shall be deemed to be his share, and the owner thereof shall
have the cultivated portion.

62. In event the gardener takes the field which has been intrusted to
him, if it be a wheat field, and fails to cultivate it, the gardener shall be
compelled to pay to the owner such sums of money or such an amount of
grain as might have been raised upon the field in accordance with what
has been raised upon adjoining fields, and shall moreover place the field
in a cultivated condition.

63. If anyone shall redeem waste land and make a cultivated field out
of the same and return it to its owner the owner shall measure out for a
year 10 „gur” of grain for every 10 „gan” [of land]. [The 10 „gur” of
grain for each 10 „gan” of land shall be paid but once in compensation for
the services rendered in making the land productive.]

64. Anyone leasing a field for the purposes of cultivation shall, so
long as he retains possession thereof, render f of the profit thereupon to
the owner and shall retain ^ for himself.

65. In event the lessee does not work the field and the profit thereof
decreases he shall give to the owner thereof profit commensurate with the
products on neighboring fields.

[There are 5 rows of text missing here which have been chiseled out.
The following paragraphs were obtained from copies out of the library of
Assurbanipal:]

a. Anyone selling to another a date garden [borrowing money from
another and giving therefor a date garden as security] upon condition that
the dates grown thereon shall be the consideration [security] for the money
paid by the purchaser [lender], the owner of the field shall be entitled
to harvest the dates and return to the purchaser [lender] the purchase
price [borrowed money] for the same and interest according to the order
[covenants] of the contract, and may dispose of the dates as he deems
advisable.

b. If anyone leases property from another for the term of a year, paying
therefor [in advance] and the lessee shall be ejected by the owner, he, the
lessee, shall be entitled to receive back such portion of the money as is
represented by the unexpired term.

c. [Anyone] owing a debt of grain or money to another which he is
unable to pay back, shall be entitled to produ’ce other possessions which he
may have equal in value [to the advancement] and discharge his indebted-
ness [by delivering them to his creditors].

[The enumeration of the paragraphs from this point gives rise to the
supposition that the gap takes in 35 paragraphs and goes on from 100.]

100. Anyone borrowing money shall, on the day of settlement, repay
the same to his creditor, with interest, according to the memoranda of
his contract [for payment].

loi. Anyone advancing money to another for the purpose of enabling
the borrower to engage in business elsewhere, and the borrower to whom
he advances failing to profit by his enterprise in such foreign place, he,
the lender, shall receive back from the borrower the money so advanced.

102. In event anyone has an advance made to him of money for an
enterprise in which he [subsequently] suffers, the loser shall return the
money advanced by his creditors.

103. In event an advancement is made to another and the borrower,
while on his journey in pursuance of the enterprise for which the money

76 RECORDS OF THE PAST

is advanced, is robbed, he shall return and make statement under oath to
his creditor of the circumstances of the robbery and thereupon shall be
discharged [from liability on account of loan].

104. Anyone delivering to a middleman, factor or broker, grain,
sesame or other .merchandise to sell [for his account], the middleman,
factor or broker shall give to him a receipt or written obligation setting
forth the commission and conditions [contract of brokerage] under which
sales and disposals of the properties are to be made and shall, in return,
take a receipt [a written authority to sell] from his consignee. – The middle-
man, broker or factor shall not use the money of his business man [con-
signee] unless receipted for [authorized in writing].

105. If the middleman, factor or broker is negligent and has failed to
take receipts for money paid by him to the business man, he is estopped
from making a subsequent claim therefor.

106. If anyone furnishes money to a middleman, broker or factor and
said middleman, broker or factor afterward denies the receipt of such
money and the person advancing the money shall make oath to the trans-
action and produce witnesses to substantiate his claim and the claim is
found to be a just one, he shall be entitled to reclaim from the middleman,
broker or factor 3 fold the money advanced by him to the middleman,
broker or factor.

107. Anyone advancing money to a middleman, broker or factor which
has been returned to him in full, and at the payment, the lender disputes
the payment, the party making the advance, upon the unjustness of his
dispute being determined, shall compensate the middleman or broker by
paying to him 6 fold the amount advanced, repaid and disputed by him.

108. Any restaurant [inn] keeper who for the payment of drinks [or
entertainment] shall [demand] and receive grain according to gross
weight instead of money and if it is shown by the payer that the drink [or
entertainment] is of a lesser value that that charged for, the innkeeper
shall be deemed guilty of misconduct [misdemeanor] and thrown into the
water [in punishment].

109. If a restaurant or innkeeper allows conspirators to meet at his
or her house and these conspirators are brought to trial before the courts
[and are convicted], the innkeeper shall be put to death.

no. In event a virgin of the temple opens [sells liquors] or enters a
bar for the purpose of drink she shall be burnt up.

111. An innkeeper delivering 60 „ka usakani” Hquor [to one on credit]
shall be repaid at the harvest 50 „ka” of grain.

112. If anyone while on a journey intrusts to another person gold,
silver, precious stones or other personal property and the bailee fails to
transport all such property to the destination determined upon [and di-
rected by the bailor] , but appropriates it [or any part thereof] to his own
use, he, the bailee, shall give back to the bailor 5 fold the amount which
has been appropriated by him.

113. If anyone receives an order from another for gold or grain and
the giver of the order takes out of the house for safe-keeping [the storage
place of the article for which the order was given] without the knowledge
of the person to whom the order was given, any part of the gold or grain,
he shall be held amenable and shall return the gold or grain to the person
holding his order and [in punishment therefor the property of the wrong-
doer shall be confiscated] his property shall be confiscated.

LAWS OF HAMMURABI jj

114. Anyone without right demanding grain or gold from another and
under duress forcing its delivery shall for each and every offence committed
by him pay \ „mine” of silver [to the injured person].

115. If anyone having a claim against another for grain or gold shall
exercise judicial restraint over that person, and that person dies a natural
death while undergoing imprisonment, the person occasioning the im-
prisonment shall not be held accountable therefor.

116. If, however, such imprisoned person dies in the house of the
claimant from the effects of blows or harsh treatment inflicted upon him,
the person causing his restraint [the murderer] shall be produced in court;
in event the person dying was a free man, the son of the person causing
his death shall suffer the death penalty in event of conviction. If on the
other hand the decedent was a slave, the murderer shall pay \ „mine” of
money [to the decedent’s owner]. The murderer’s estate shall become
the property of the slave’s owner [or the heirs of the freeman].

117. Anyone who shall, by reason of his indebtedness, sell his wife’s
son or daughter for money or hires them [or either of them] out for forced
labor in order that he may pay his indebtedness with the proceeds realized
from their labor, the person so hired out shall be compelled to work for 3
years for the purchaser [hirer] and in the fourth year he or she shall be
emancipated.

118. In event a slave, male or female, is hired out for forced labor and
the person hiring them rehires them to someone else, he shall not be
adjudged to be at fault in so doing.

119. Anyone who owes a debt and for payment thereof sells a female
slave, who has born children, shall be compelled to furnish money for the
purpose of emancipating her.

120. If anyone stores grain in the house of another and an accident
happens to the grain, or the bailee converts the grain to his own use and
afterward shall deny the existence of any such grain stored in his house,
then the owner upon making claim under oath for his grain [which is sub-
stantiated], shall be entitled to receive from the bailee the grain lost or
converted by the bailee to his own use in undiminished quantity.

121. Anyone storing grain in the house of another shall compensate
the bailee by paying to him 5 „ka” of grain for every i „gur” of grain
stored during the year.

122. If anyone intrusts to another gold, silver or other personal prop-
erty for safe-keeping, he shall exhibit the articles to be stored to a witness
and thereby close the contract for safe-keeping [which shall be a binding
contract of bailment].

123. In event the witness to the contract [alleged to have been made]
shall afterward appear and deny its existence, the bailee shall be discharged
of any Hability on account of the alleged contract.

124. Anyone depositing with another one gold, silver or any personal
property before a witness, shall be entitled to have restored to him the
article in undiminished quantity.

125. Anyone receiving for bailment [for hire] another’s property,
which property, together with his own property, is lost or stolen while in
his possession, shall return [the value of] that which was given him [bailed
with him] for safe-keeping to the owner or bailor. The bailee may recover
it [the stolen property from the thief] and shall not be adjudged to have
committed an ofifence.

78 RECORDS OF THE PAST

126. If anyone deprived of property by fraud shall assert his claim
thereto under oath he shall receive back from the one practicing the fraud
upon him that which he claims [upon proof of his right so to do].

127. Anyone slandering a virgin of the temple or the wife of another
person and being unable to substantiate the slander [the truth of which
slander he cannot substantiate] shall be marked upon the brow.

128. If anyone takes to himself a wife without a formal contract [of
marriage being entered upon], the woman so taken shall not be deemed
to be the legal wife [of the man so taking her to his bed].

129. If anyone’s wife is captured with another person [committing
adultery] both are to be thrown into the water. In case the husband of
the wife forgives his wife and the king his slave [no other punishment shall
be inflicted].

130. If anyone violates [has carnal knowledge of] the wife of another
one, the wife not prior thereto having had knowledge of a man, and the
assault occurs in the house of her father and the assailant is captured, he,
the assailant, shall be put to death and the woman shall be regarded as
blameless.

131. If a husband slanders or brings charges against a wife [to the
efifect that she is an adulteress] [and puts her aside], though she is not
discovered sleeping with another one, she is to make oath before God and
[she shall upon making oath as to her innocence] return to her house.

132. If against anyone’s wife, on account of another man, accusation
is made and she is found sleeping with another man, then shall she jump
into the river in place of her husband. [A woman found guilty of adultery
shall be drowned.]

133. In event a husband is taken prisoner of war while in his house,
and leaves [makes provisions for his wife’s support] life sustenance and
[after provision for her support has been made] his wife leaves her house
and home and goes into another home; she, because she has not preserved
the sanctity of her home, but has gone into another house, shall be taken
before the court [and on conviction thereof shall be] thrown into the water.
[Drowned.]

134. If anyone is taken prisoner of war and there is no life sustenance in
his house [and makes no provision for his wife’s support] and his wife goes
into another house, she shall in that case be adjudged guiltless.

135. If anyone is taken prisoner of war and there is no life sustenance
[support provided for his wife] in the house and his wife goes into another
house and there are children bom to her in the house to which she goes,
and later her husband returns to his home, then shall his wife return to
him; the children, however, shall follow their father.

136. If anyone leaves his home, runs away [deserts and abandons his
wife] and thereupon his wife goes into another house; if then he returns
and wishes to take back his wife to himself, the wife of the fugitive shall
not return to her husband, because he has torn himself away from his
family and run away.

137. If anyone has the intention to cast from him a side wife [con-
cubine], who has born children to him and his legal wife has presented him
with children, he shall give to each wife her respective children and give
her a useful portion of field, garden and possessions that she may raise her
children. [In event of her husband’s death and all her children reach their
piajority] when she has raised her children she shall receive [an allotment

LAWS OF HAMMURABI 79

equal to a son’s share of his property] a portion of all that her children
receive as is allotted to a son. She may then Hkewise marry the man of
her choice.

138. If a man divorces his wife [because of her barrenness], who has
born him no children, he shall give back to her the sum of the present
from him to her at the wedding [the money he gave her for a wedding
gift] and also the dowry which she brought him from her father’s house.

139. In event a man marries a woman without presenting to her a mar-
riage portion and subsequently there is a legal separation declared, he shall
give to her i „mine” of money.

140. If he is a freedman [emancipated slave] he is to give to her ^ of
a „mine” of money.

141. In event a man’s legal wife shall depart from him after having
been guilty of extravagance, and before her departure she is brought to
court by her husband and the husband solicits a divorce, which is granted,
she shall be permitted to depart and the husband shall not be compelled to
compensate her. In event the husband does not desire to be divorced and
desires to take another wife, the one deemed guilty of extravagance shall
be compelled to remain in the house of her husband as a servant.

142. In event the wife quarrels with her husband and shall produce
proof sustaining her justification and she is found to be blameless, she
shall [be permitted] to return to the home of her father and in addition
thereto receive compensation from her husband.

143. If she is adjudged to be guilty of having dissipated [her hus-
band’s property] and neglected her husband, she shall be thrown into the
water.

144. If anyone [a man] takes a wife and his wife gives her husband a
servant, and the servant has children by him, and the man then declares
his intention of taking a side wife [concubine], he shall not be allowed so
to do. He shall have no side wife [concubine].

145. If anyone [a man] takes a wife and she does not bear him any
children, and he has the intention to take a side wife [concubine], if he takes
a side wife and brings her into his house she shall not stand on the same
footing with his wife.

146. If a man takes a wife and this one gives her husband a maid as
wife, and she [the maid] bears him children, and then this maid tries to
place herself on an equality with her mistress, because she has born chil-
dren, her owner is not to sell her for money, but he is to pay her in silver
and reckon her among the servants.

147. If she has not born children, then her master may sell her for
money.

148. If any man shall marry a woman and she becomes sick (?) and
he then marries another woman, he shall not cast out the sick wife, but
shall keep her in his house and support [and protect] her so long as she
lives.

149. In event the wife does not desire to live in the house of her
husband he shall be compelled to return to her the dowry which she has
brought from her father’s house and she shall be permitted to take her
departure.

150. If a man shall give to his wife a field, garden, house or other
property and gives her written evidence of the conveyance and shall there-
after die, in event her sons lay no claim to the property [by way of hire for

8o RECORDS OF THE PAST

services] the widow shall be permitted to bestow upon the son of her
choice the estate given her by her husband and is not bound by law to
give to her other sons any part thereof.

151. In event a widow marries a second time and her second husband,
prior to the marriage, had an estate, this estate shall be exempt from attach-
ment by the creditors of the wife. The wife’s estate shall likewise be
exempt from attachment by creditors of the husband [provided it was
acquired prior to her second marriage].

152. In event the [second] husband and wife jointly contract an in-
debtedness subsequent to the marriage they shall be jointly liable therefor.

153. If the wife of a man occasions her husband’s death, because of her
love for another man, she shall be deemed guilty of murder and put to death.

154. If anyone has carnal knowledge of his daughter, he is to be driven
from the town.

155. If anyone betroths his son to a girl and the son associates with
her [accepts her in marriage] and the father of the son is afterward con-
victed of having committed adultery with his son’s wife, the father is to
be bound and thrown into the water.

156. If anyone betroths his son to a girl and his son does not recognize
her [accept her in marriage] and thereupon that one [the son’s father]
sleeps with her, he, the son’s father, shall pay her ^ a „mine” of money and
shall give back to her everything that she has brought along from her
father’s house. She may then marry the man of her choice.

157. If anyone sleeps with his mother after his father [has slept with
her], then both the wife and son are to be burnt up.

158. If the son of any man is caught with the chief [first or legal
wife] of his father, after his father has cohabited with her, if she has born
children, he is to be driven out of his father’s house.

159. If anyone brings personal property into the house of a proposed
father-in-law [in payment to the father for his daughter] and thereafter
refuses to marry the daughter, he shall forfeit such property as he has
brought in payment for his wife to the father.

160. If anyone brings personal property into the house of his proposed
father-in-law and the father-in-law receives the same and then refuses to
permit that person to take his daughter from the house, the father of the
daughter shall return the property he has received and upon the return
thereof shall be discharged from his obligation to the suitor for his daughter.

161. Should anyone bring into the house of his proposed father-in-law
and pay to him the grain demanded for his daughter and thereupon is
slandered by a third person, whose desire it is to marry the daughter, and
the father thereupon refuses to permit the one paying the grain to take
his daughter, he, the slandered person, shall be entitled to receive back
the grain he has paid to the father of the daughter and the party slandering
him shall not be permitted to marry the daughter.

162. Anyone marrying a wife, who shall bear him sons and then die,
will not be compelled to return to his wife’s father her dowry. The dowry
upon her death shall belong to her sons.

163. In event anyone marries a wife and she shall die without issue,
the father of the wife shall return to the husband the grain treasure which
has been paid him by the husband. The dowry shall revert to the wife’s
father.

164. In event the father fails to return the grain treasure paid for his

LAWS OF HAMMURABI 8i

daughter by her husband, her husband shall be entitled to deduct from the
dowry, which belongs to her father, the amount thereof, and shall then pay
whatsoever remains of the dowry to her father.

165. In event a father during his lifetihie gives to a favored son his
field and executes conveyance thereof to that son and then dies and leaves
other sons, the favored son shall receive from his father’s estate the field
presented to him during the lifetime of his father and the balance of his
estate shall be divided among those not so favored.

166. In event he chobses wives for his adult sons, before his minor
sons attain maturity, and then dies, the adult sons shall divide the property
equally among themselves, after having set aside a sufficient portion of
the estate, to enable their minor brothers to provide grain treasure with
which to purchase wives.

167. If anyone marries a woman who bears him children and the
mother thereupon dies, and the husband then remarries and has children
by his second wife, and thereupon the husband dies, the property shall be
divided among all the children per capita. The property left by the first
wife shall go to her children and that of the second wife to her children.

168. Anyone proposing to disinherit his son shall go before a tribunal
and there declare his intentions to so do, whereupon a hearing shall be had
and if the son is found to be not guilty of conduct which shall justify his
disinheritance, the father shall not be permitted to disinherit him.

169. In event the father establishes misconduct on the part of the son,
such as would justify disinheritance, the son shall be forgiven for the first
offence, but upon repetition thereof shall be deemed guilty of having com-
mitted a grave offence and shall be disinherited.

170. If a man marries a woman who bears him sons and he also has
children by a slave, who, during the father’s lifetime, were recognized as
his sons and declared to be such, and the father then dies, the children of
both the wife and the slave shall divide equally the father’s estate. Never-
theless the children of the wife shall be preferred in the choosing of the
portions of said divisions.

171. In event, however, the father of children by a slave does not
recognize them during his lifetime as his children, „my sons,” the children
of the slave shall not be entitled to share with the children of the wife,
upon the death of the father, but the slave and her children shall be emanci-
pated and no claim upon their services shall be permitted to be made by
children of the wife. The wife shall be permitted to receive her dowry and
the property given her by her husband during his lifetime, by written con-
veyance, and shall have the use and occupation of her deceased husband’s
house, so long as she shall live, which house may not be sold upon her
husband’s death. The property of the wife shall descend to her children.

172. In event the husband has bestowed no gift during her lifetime
upon the wife, she shall receive her dowry and in addition thereto, a portion
of her husband’s estate commensurate with the portion of all of her children.
In event her sons eject her from the homestead, she may proceed before a
tribunal and there assert her claim; if it be proved that her sons have wrong-
fully ejected her, she may remain in her husband’s house. In event a
widow desires to leave her husband’s house she shall bestow upon her sons
the gifts which her husband had given her, but she may retain her dowry
and remarry if she desires.

173. In event a widow marries and there is issue born to her and

82 RECORDS OF THE PAST

thereupon she dies, her dowry shall be divided between the children of her
first and second husbands [per capita] .

174. If she does not bear sons to her second husband the sons of her
first husband shall receive her entire dowry.

175. When a slave of the state or the slave of a freedman marries the
daughter of a freedman and issue is born of such marriage, the owner of
said slave shall not be permitted to reduce to slavery the children of such
marriage. If he should so do they shall be deemed to be free children.

176. If a state slave or the slave of a freedman marries anyone’s daugh-
ter, and after he has married her and she has moved into that one’s house,
taking with her the dowry of her father’s house, they both have settled
down and founded a household of their own, have acquired wealth, and
thereupon that slave dies, then this freeborn woman shall take her dowry
and all that which she and her husband have acquired since their settling
down; she shall divide it into two parts and the owner of the slave shall
take I and the freeborn woman shall take the other ^ for her children. If
the freeborn woman did not have a dowry, she shall divide everything into
two parts which her husband shall have acquired since their settling down,
and the owner shall take | and the freeborn woman shall take the other ^
for her children.

177. Any widow, who shall desire to enter into a marriage contract
having ungrown children, shall not be permitted to enter into the mar-
riage relation with another person without first gaining permission from
the court. If she marries, the value of the estate of her former husband
shall be determined by the court and it shall then be given into the custody
of the widow and the second husband. The property shall be kept in good
order, the children maintained and no disposition [by sale] of the estate
shall be made. Anyone purchasing such property shall forfeit the pur-
chase price and the property shall be returned to its owner.

178. If the father of a consecrated one [a virgin of the temple] or a
public girl [prostitute for hire regulated by city] has given her a dowry and
a certificate thereunto, which certificate contains no provision for the dispo-
sition of the property and fails to give her a right to dispose thereof as she
may desire, dies, her brothers are to receive her field and garden, according
to the size of her share, and are to give her grain, oil and milk and place her
in peace [provide for her safe-keeping]. If her brothers do not give her
grain, oil and milk, according to her share, and do not place her in peace,
her field and garden are to be given over to a farmer whom she approves,
and the farmer shall provide for her. She shall have the field, garden and
everything which she has inherited from her father so long as she lives,
but she shall not sell it or dispose of it to another one. Her child’s portion
[heritage] belongs to her brothers. [Life interest with remainder to
brothers.]

179. If the father of a consecrated one or a public gin has given her a
dowry and has given her a certificate thereof, and has specified therein that
she may dispose of her dowry to whom she pleases, giving to her full power
of disposition thereof, and the father then dies, she may thereupon dispose
of her heritage to whom it pleases her to so do. Her brothers may inter-
pose no objection.

180. If a father gives to his daughter — marriageable or public girl —
and then dies, she is to receive a child’s protection of the paternal estate,
and as long as she lives is to have the use thereof. What she leaves

LAWS OF HAMMURABI 83

behind belongs to her brothers [life estate with remainder to brothers].

181. In event a father, who dedicated his daughter to the temple,
thereupon gives her no dowry and then the father dies, she shall receive
from her father’s estate [the use of for life] ^ of her portion of the estate
so long as she shall live and at her death her share of the estate is to revert
to her brothers.

182. In event the father should fail to bestow on his daughter [virgin
of the temple] a dowry prior to his death, she shall receive ^ of a child’s
portion from her father’s estate, but she shall not be entrusted with the
management thereof. She may, however, make whatsoever disposition
of this property by law, as she may desire.

183. If anyone gives to his daughter, who is the ofifspring of a concu-
bine, a dowry with a certificate thereof, and then gives her in marriage,
and the father dies, she is to receive no portion of the paternal heritage.

184. If the father of the daughter of a concubine does not give a
dowry to the daughter and does not provide for her in marriage, and the
father dies, the daughter’s brothers are to give her a dowry in keeping
with the paternal fortune, and provide for her marriage.

185. In event of the adoption of a child by a person who shall give to
the child his own name and nurture the child to maturity, the [natural]
parents of the child shall not be permitted to claim it [of its foster parents] .

186. In event of the misconduct of the child he may be returned to his
father’s house [by his foster parents] .

187. The son of a gallant [libertine] in the service of the palace or of
a public girl [public prostitute] cannot be demanded back [from the per-
sons who cared for and raised him.

188. If a workman adopts a child for the purpose of rearing him and
teaches him his trade, the child cannot be demanded back again.

189. If he has failed to teach him his trade, the son, upon reaching
maturity, can return to his father’s house.

190. In event an adopted child is not permitted to associate with the
children of his foster parents, he may at maturity return to his father’s
house.

191. If anyone [unmarried] adopts a child and afterwards founds a
home and rears children of his own, and then attempts to cast out the foster
child, shall not be permitted so to do unless he shall give to the foster
child ^ of a child’s portion exclusive of his field, garden and house.

192. In event a foster child shall say to his foster father or mother,
„Thou art not my father or mother,” his tongue shall be cut off.

193. If the son of a gallant [libertine] or of a [gallant’s] mistress
seeks knowledge of his natural father’s home from his foster father or
mother, and turns away from them [his foster parents] and goes into his
[natural] father’s house, then his eyes are to be put out.

194. If anyone leaves a child with a wet nurse and the child dies in
the wet nurse’s charge, and the nurse then suckles to maturity another
child without the knowledge of the father and mother of the child left
with her in the first instance, that nurse shall be arrested, because she has
nursed another child without the knowledge of the father and mother, and
her breast is to be amputated [upon conviction of the offence] .

195. Anyone assaulting his father shall suffer the loss of his hands.

196. Anyone destroying the eye of another shall suffer the loss of an
eye as punishment therefor.

84 RECORDS OF THE PAST

197. If anyone fractures the bones of another, the guilty one, upon
conviction, shall have his bones fractured in punishment therefor.

198. If anyone destroys the eye of a freedman or fractures the bones
of a freedman, he, upon conviction thereof, is to pay i „mine” of money
[as a fine].

199. If anyone destroys the eye or fractures the bones of anyone’s
slave, he, upon conviction thereof, is to pay i of his value [to the owner
of the slave].

200. If anyone knocks out the teeth of one, his equal [in rank], his
teeth are to be knocked out, upon conviction of the offence.

201. If he has knocked out the teeth of a freedman, he is to pay | of
a „mine” of money [as a fine].

202. If anyone commits assault and battery upon the person of another
one of higher rank than himself, he is publicly to receive 60 lashes with the
oxhide [upon conviction of the ofifence].

203. When a freeman commits assault and battery upon another free-
man of equal rank he shall pay i „mine” of money [to him in damagfes].

204. If a freedman commits assault and battery upon a freedman, he
is to pay 10 shekels of money [to that freedman so assaulted].

205. If the slave of a freeman commits assault and battery on a
freeman, his ear is to be cut ofT as a penalty therefor [upon conviction] .

206. If anyone assaults another in a fight and gives him a wound, and
upon oath declares he did so without intent, he shall pay the doctor [and
be discharged from further punishment].

207. If the assaulted person dies of the blow the aggressor shall, under
oath, state that he did not intend to kill; if the decedent be a freeborn
person, he shall pay ^ a „mine” of money as a fine [upon conviction of the
ofifence] .

208. If the decedent was a freedman, he is to pay ^ of a „mine.”

209. If anyone strikes a freeborn woman, who is pregnant and thereby
causes a miscarriage, the assailant, upon conviction, shall pay 10 shekels of
money to the injured party in damages.

210. If the woman dies, then the assailant’s daughter shall be killed.

211. If a woman of the freed classes suff ers^ a miscarriage through
the assailant’s blow, he shall pay 5 shekels of money [to her in damages if
convicted] . ‘

212. If the woman dies of the assault the assailant shall pay ^ a „mine”
as a fine.

213. If the woman assailed is someone’s servant and she suffers a
miscarriage thereby, the assailant shall pay 2 shekels of money [as penalty
upon conviction].

214. If the servant dies he is to pay | of a „mine.”

215. If a doctor performs an operation upon a patient [freeborn] and
thereby cures the patient, or if he opens a tumor of the eye by an operation
with a knife and the eye is saved thereby, the doctor is to receive 10 shekels
of money for his services.

216. If the patient is a freedman the doctor shall receive 5 shekels.

217. If the patient is anyone’s slave, the owner is to- give the doctor
2 shekels.

218. If a surgeon makes a severe wound with the operating knife on
a patient, and the patient dies; or opens a tumor of the eye on anyone
and the eye is lost, the surgeon shall have his hands chopped ofif.

LAWS OF HAMMURABI 85

2ig. If a surgeon performs a serious operation on the slave of a freed-
man with an operating knife, and kills the slave, he shall give the owner
a slave in the deceased one’s stead.

220. If the surgeon has opened a tumor on the eye of a slave with an
operating knife, and the eye is destroyed, the surgeon is to pay ^ the price
[value] of the slave to the owner.

221. If a doctor heals the broken bone of anyone or diseased soft parts,
the sick one is to give the doctor 5 shekels.

222. If he be a freedman he is to give 3 shekels.

223. If he be a slave, his owner is to pay the doctor 2 shekels.

224. If a doctor of beeves and asses [veterinary] makes a severe wound
on a beef or ass and heals the animal, its owner is to give the doctor ^ of
a shekel.

225. If he does a severe operation on a beef or an ass and kills it, he
is to give its owner J of its value.

226. If the shearer [brander of slaves] without the knowledge of the
owner of a slave marks a salable slave with the sign [sign used to designate
a worthless slave] of an unsalable slave, the hands of this shearer are to be
cut ofif [upon conviction of the ofifence].

227. If anyone deceived a shearer and has him brand a salable slave
with the sign of an unsalable slave, the party guilty of the deception shall
be put to death and his house is to be burnt [provided he be convicted
thereof]. The shearer, upon making oath to the following: „I have not
marked him [the slave] knowingly,” shall be regarded as innocent.

228. If a builder builds a house for anyone and finishes it, the owner
is to give him for [every] „sar” of built surface 2 shekels of money as a
present [in compensation for his labor].

229. If a builder builds a house for anyone and does not complete it
firmly, and the house that he has built collapses and kills the owner, then
the builder shall be put to death.

230. If it kills the son of the owner, then the son of the builder shall
be put to death.

231. If it strikes a slave of the owner, he shall give slave for slave [for
every slave killed] to the owner of the house.

232. If it destroys property, he is to make good all that has been de-
stroyed and, because he has not carried out finally the building of the
house [contracted to be] built by him, so that it collapses, he is to build
up the collapsed part and furnish his own materials therefor.

233. If a building master builds a house for anyone and he has not
carried out completely [his undertaking], and the wall threatens to fall,
the builder is to make the wall firm out of his own money.

234. If a shipbuilder builds a ship for anyone of 60 „gur” [capacity]
the owner shall give him 2 shekels of money as a present [compensation].

235. If a shipbuilder builds a ship for anyone and does not make it
strong, and the ship sails during that year [upon a journey] and sufifers
injury [by reason of its faulty construction], the shipbuilder shall take the
ship apart and rebuild it firmly out of his own materials; he shall build a
firm ship for the shipowner.

236. If anyone hires a ship to a skipper and the skipper is careless,
and the ship is wrecked or destroyed, the skipper shall replace the ship to
the shipowner.

237. If anyone supplies [provisions] a skipper his ship, that is, supplies

86 RECORDS OF THE PAST

it with grain, oil, dates and everything else that belongs to its outfitting,
and that skipper is negligent and wrecks the ship and destroys its contents,
the skipper shall replace the ship that is wrecked and everything that was
destroyed in it.

238. If a skipper wrecks anyone’s ship, but saves it [from total loss],
he is to pay ^ of its price in money to its owner.

239. If anyone provisions a ship or a skipper he is to be paid therefor
6 „gur” for the year.

240. If a freight boat collides with a passenger ship and wrecks it, the
owner of the ship which was wrecked is to seek justice before God [present
his claim under oath] ; and in event it is sustained, the owner of the freight
boat, who has occasioned the wreck of the passenger ship, shall return to
the owner of the passenger ship the ship so destroyed [or its value] and
everything that was destroyed with it.

241. If anyone forces an ox not belonging to him to labor he is to
pay -J of a „mine” of money in penalty therefor.

242. If anyone hires a field ox for a year he is to give to the owner
4 „gur” of grain as hire for the field ox.

243. As hire for the heath (?) ox he is to give the owner 3 „gur” of
grain.

244. If anyone hires an ox or an ass, and a lion [wild beast] kills it in
the field, the loss falls on the owner.

245. If anyone hires an ox and kills him through bad treatment or
blows he is to return to the owner an ox for the ox so killed.

246. If anyone hires an ox and he breaks one of its legs or cuts a neck
ligament, the lessee is to return [an uninjured ox] to the owner.

247. If anyone hires an ox and knocks one of the ox’s eyes out he is
to give i of its value to the owner.

248. If anyone hires an ox and breaks off one of its horns, cuts off its
tail or damages some part of its mouth, he is to pay ^ the value in money.

249. If anyone hires an ox and God [an unavoidable accident] strikes
him and he dies, then the one who has hired him shall swear before God
and be blameless [shall make oath to the circumstances and be discharged
from liability].

250. If an ox, while going upon the street, strikes anyone and kills
him, there shall be no legal claim for damages [the law will not hold any-
one liable therefor].

251. If anyone’s ox is a butter [dangerous], and his fault has been
pointed out to the owner, who shall fail to wrap its horns and does not re-
strain the ox, and the ox gores a freeman and kills him, the owner shall pay
2 „mines” of money.

252. If he kills anyone’s slave he is to pay ^ of a „mine.”

253. If anyone bargains [seeks to lease his farm to another] with
another one to take care of his farm and trusts him with grain for planting
and with draft animals, and bids him to plant the field, and the one to
whom the property is intrusted steals the grain or plants raised thereon
and takes them for his own use, he shall have his hands cut off.

254. If he takes the planting grain (?) [seed] for himself and does not
use the draft beast, he shall return to the owner of the field the amount of
the cultivation grain (?) [a sum equivalent to what might have been raised
upon the land had he done his duty].

255. If he [the lessee] lets out the draft cattle of the man for rent or

LAWS OF HAMMURABI 87

steals the seed grain and does not raise anything upon the field, he is to be
arrested and upon conviction of the offence shall for every 100 „gan” pay
60 „gur” of grain to the owner.

256. If [he cannot pay the pena;ltyj his township does not care to
pay it for him, he is to be left on that farm among the cattle.

257. The rate of pay for a field laborer is 8 „gur” of grain annually for
his services.

258. If anyone hires an ox tender he is to pay him 6 „gur” of grain
a year.

259. If anyone steals a water wheel from the field he is to give the
owner 5 shekels of money upon proof of his guilt.

260. If he steals a dipping bucket or a plow he is to give 3 shekels of
money to the owner upon proof of his guilt.

261. If anyone hires a shepherd to graze out cattle and small animals
he is to give him 8 „gur” of grain a year [in compensation for his labor].

262. If anyone a beef or a sheep [tablet defaced] .

263. If he [one to whom a beef or sheep is loaned] ruins the beef or
sheep that was loaned him, he is to return to the owner a beef for a beef
and a sheep for a sheep.

264. If a shepherd who has been intrusted with cattle and small
animals for grazing purposes has received the wages that were determined
upon [as compensation for his services], damages the beef or small cattle
and makes the increase by birth smaller, he shall be accountable to the
owner, according to the wording of the agreement for increase and profit.

265. If a shepherd who has been intrusted with cattle and small animals
falsifies the natural increase or sells the increase for money, he is to be
arrested and [upon conviction thereof] shall return 10 fold the cattle or
small animals [so claimed to exist] to their owner.

266. If in a stable a beef is injured by an act of God or a lion [wild
beast] the shepherd shall make oath to his lack of fault and produce the
injured animal to its owner [and thence go in peace].

267. If a shepherd through his negligence causes injury to cattle in
the ‘stable, the shepherd shall compensate the owner in cattle and small
animals to the extent of the damage, which he has caused in the stable
[to the owner’s property].

268. If anyone hires an ox for the purpose of threshing he shall pay
for the hire thereof 20 „ka” of grain [for that threshing period] .

269. If he hire an ass for threshing purposes the rate of hire is 20 „ka”
of grain [for that threshing period].

270. If he hires a young animal for threshing purposes the rate of hire
is 10 „ka” of grain [for that threshing period].

271. If anyone rents an ox, wagon and driver, he is to pay 180 „ka”
of grain per day [for the use thereof].

272. If anyone hires a cart alone he is to give 40 „ka” of grain per
day [for the use thereof].

273. Anyone hiring a laborer shall give him [for his services] from
every new year to the fifth month [at the rate of] 6 Grochen of money
per day and from the sixth month to the end of the year he is to pay him
[at the rate of] 5 Grochen per day.

274. Anyone employing a workman who is a member of an associa-
tion shall pay him at the rate of 5 Grochen; a potter’s (?) wages shall be
5 Grochen, a tailor’s wages shall be 5 Grochen, the wages of a (?)

88 RECORDS OF THE PAST

Grochen, the wages of (?) Grochen, the wages of a (?)

Grochen, the wages of a carpenter shall be 4 Grochen, the wages of a rope-
maker (?) shall be 4 Grochen, the wages of a (?) Grochen, the wages

of a mason shall be (?) Grochen, per day.

275. If anyone hires a ship [from another] he is to give for the use of
the ship for each day, 3 Grochen of money as rent.

276. If he hires a freight ship he is to give 2^ Grochen per day.

2yy. If anyone hires a ship of 60 „gur” [capacity] he shall give i
shekel of money a day as rent therefor.

278. If anyone buys a male or female slave, and before the end of the
month the benu-sickness attacks the slave, he shall give the slave back to
the vendor and shall receive back from the vendor the money that he has
paid [for the slave].

279. If anyone buys a male or female slave and a claim is laid to them
[by a third party] the vendor selling without right so to do is responsible
both to the owner and purchaser.

280. If anyone buys male or female slaves in a foreign country, and
he goes into that country and the owner recognizes his male or female
slave; if the male or female slaves are children of a common country he is to
return them without paying money damages [being called upon to pay
damages to the owner] .

281. If they [the slaves] come from another country the purchaser
shall make oath as to the amount of money he paid for the slaves, and the
owner shall thereupon pay back to the purchaser the money which he has
paid [for the slaves] and take the male or female slaves into his possession
again.

282. If a slave says to his master, „You are not my master,” and is
proven guilty of this [of falsifying in respect thereto], his owner may cut
ofif his ear. ,

HAMMURABI S CONCLUSION

The determination of law of the ever wise King Hammurabi, who
taught the country proper law and the pious institutions. Hammurabi,
the protecting King, am I. Men, whom Bel gave me, the government of
whom Marduk has given me, I did not flee from; I was not dilatory, I
furnished them with residences of peace, I opened steep passes, I let light
shine out from them, with a mighty weapon which Zamama and Istar
loaned me, with a keen glance which Ea determined for me, with the wis-
dom which Marduk gave me; I routed out the enemies above and below
[north and south], I subjugated the earth, I furnished the country with
well-being, the inhabitants of the residences with life and safety, I did not
tolerate a disturber of the peace; the great gods called me, I am the good
shepherd [sovereign], whose staff [scepter] is straight [just], the good
shadow [umbrella], which is spread over my city; at my breast I nurse
the inhabitants of the land Sumer and Akkad [Babylonia], in my protection
I let them rest in peace, in my wisdom I harbored them that the strong
should not injure the weak, to make safe widows and orphans; I have
rested in Babylon, I have rested in the town of Babylon, the town of Anu
and Bel their head. In Sagila the temple whose foundations stand firm as
heaven and earth, I have in order to speak the right of the land, to determine
the matters of conflict, to heal the injuries of, my valuable words I have
inscribed upon my memorial stone, upon my image, erected as a king of
justice,, who rises above the kings of the city am I.

LAWS OF HAMMURABI

My words are well considered, my wisdom has not its equal; upon the”
laws of Shamash, the great judge of heaven and earth, righteousness is
to rise up in the land; upon the word of Marduk, my master, to my
monument destruction is not to happen. In the Sagila that I love, shall
my name be for ever, the avenging one, who has judicial matters [not
litigation], shall come for the picture of the king of righteousness, shall
read the inscription and understand my valuable words, the inscription
shall show him [shall explain him its affairs], his justice he shall see [find],
his heart shall become joyous [so that he shall say], „Hammurabi is a
sovereign, he is a father to his subjects; to the world of Marduk he has
furnished a representative for the word of Marduk; he is known above and
below [north and south] ; the heart of Marduk, his master, he has given
joy, for ever has supplied well-being to his subjects; he has brought the land
into order.” When he has read the record, he is to pray before Marduk,
my sovereign, and Zarpanit, my sovereigness, pray with a full heart, then
will the protecting deities of the gods who walk in the Sagila thoughts
daily speak graciously before Marduk, daily before Marduk, my master, and
Zarpanit, my mistress.

If later, perpetually and for ever, the king, who is in the country, shall
the words of righteousness which upon my monument I have written,
observe, the law of the country that I have given, the decisions that I have
ordered, he shall not change, my memorial not injure. If this prince has
wisdom and is able to keep his country in order he shall observe the words
that I have written in the inscription; standards of conduct and statutes
and the law of the land that I have given, the decisions which I have
rendered shall the inscriptions show him; his subjects he shall rule according
to them [by them], he shall speak justice for them, shall render decisions,
he shall weed out of the country wicked and mischievous ones, he shall
furnish to his subjects well-being, Hammurabi, the king of righteousness,
Shamash presented with the right, am I. My words are well [weighed],
my deeds have not their equal to subjugate [reduce] the high one, to
humble the proud one, to drive out the haughty. If that prince heeds my
words which I have written in my inscription and does not injure my law,
and does not misunderstand my words, does not injure my memorial, so
may to that prince as to me, the king of righteousness, Shamash, make his
rule long, his subjects he shall rule in justice. If that prince does not heed my
words which I have written in my inscription he shall have my curse and
contempt; does not fear the curse of the gods, defaces the law that I have
given, falsifies my words, changes my memorial, extinguishes my name,
writes down his name, or on account of those curses despises anyone, that
person, with a king or master, Patesi (?) or citizen, whatever his name,
great god-father of the gods, who has ordained by sovereignty, let him
withdraw the splendor of the kingdom from him, break his scepter, curse
his aptness; Bel, the master, who determines the aptness [suitability] whose
order is not changed, who makes my kingdom large, the insurrection which
his hand does not control, the wind of his downfall shall he let blow against
his towns, years of governmental oppression, short duration of life, years
of famine, a darkness without light, a death with seeing eyes, he is to
determine for him his fate, the downfall of his city, the insurrection of his
subjects, the abolition of his sovereignty, the oblivion of his name and
memory, may decree with his weighty mouth. Beltis, the great mother,
whose orders are weighty in the E-kur, the mistress who pays good atten-

90 RECORDS OF THE PAST

tion to my wishes at the place of the court and decision, shall make his
matter bad before Bel, the destruction of his country, the destruction of
his subjects, the outpour of his life like water into the mouth of Bel the
king shall lay. Ea, the great princess, whose conclusions of fortune go
ahead, the thinker of good, who knows everything, who makes long the days
of my life, shall deprive of wisdom and understanding, shall lead him into
oblivion, his rivers pen up in their springs, and not let grow in his country
the grain, the Hfe sustenance of the people. Shamash, the great judge of
heaven and earth, who keeps aloft all ways of life, the master of the courage
of life, shall break up his kingdom, shall not carry out his right, shall stop
his road, shall destroy the courage of his troops, in his dreams face bad
prophecies with the extermination of the foundations of his throne and
prophesy the downfall of his country. Judgment of Shamash shall over-
take him at once, up among the living, cast down his spirit to the earth.
ifle shall let him do without water among the Hving, without his spirit under
the earth. Sin, the lord of the lord of the heaven, the god-father, whose
sickle flares up among the gods, shall deprive him of crown and royal
throne; the heavy guilt, the great ofifence, he will not soften; but he cast
upon him days, months and years of his rule shall he spend in sobs and
tears, he will increase the burden of his sovereignty for him, he shall give
him as his fortune a Hfe that shall be like death. Adad, the master of
fertility, the prince of heaven and earth, my helper, shall deprive him of
the rain in the heavens, the water supply in the springs and shall destroy
his land by famine and poverty, and shall rage powerfully over his city and
shall reduce his country to flood islands [ruined hills] . Zamama, the great
warrior, the first son of E-kur, who goes at my right, shall break his weapon
upon his election town, shall turn day into night for him, shall let his
enemy triumph over him. Istar, the goddess of battle and slaughter, who
frees my weapons, my generous protecting deity, who loves my kingdom,
in her angry heart, in her great grimness, shall she curse his kingdom,
shall turn his benevolence into misfortune and break his weapon at the place
of slaughter and battle. She will bring him disorder and rebellion, shall
knock down his warriors, the earth shall drink their blood, heaps of corpses
of his troops she shall throw down in the field, a life of mercy not spare
him, shall surrender him into the hand of his enemies, shall take him a
captive into the country of his enemies. Nergal, the mighty among the
gods, whose conflict is irresistible, who lends me victory in his great
violence, who shall consume his subjects like a weak reed, with his mighty
weapon he will cut off his limbs, he shall break as an earthen image. Nin-
tu, the exalted mistress of the countries, the prolific mother, shall deny him
a son, shall grant him no name, among human beings she shall give him
no descendants. Nin-karak, the daughter of Anu, who bestows mercy, in
E-kur she shall inflict on him severe sickness, bad fever, bad wounds, which
will not be healed, whose character the physician does not understand,
which he does not know how to treat with a bandage, which Hke the bite
of death cannot be averted, she shall let it come over his limbs till it de-
stroys his life. He shall lament his vitality, the great gods of heaven and
earth, the Anunaki, as a whole, shall cast curses and evil upon the sur-
roundings of the temple, the walls of this E-barra, his government, his
country, his warriors, his subjects and his troops. Bel shall strike him
immediately with a powerful curse out of his mouth, which cannot be
changed.

Plate No. i

Plate No. 2

Plate No. 3

Plate No. 4

Plate No. S

Plate No. 6

EXPLORATIONS IN BIBLE LANDS

DURING THE N I N E T E E, N T H CENTURY

THE FIRST COMPLETE ACCOUNT OF THE RECENT

EXCAVATIONS AT NIPPUR

By PROF. H. V. HILPRECHT, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D.

Scientific Director of the Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania

EXCAVATIONS IN THE TEMPLE COURT AT NIPPUR

THE author, in the preparation of this
volume, has had the co-operation of well-
knovirn, leading scholars of German Uni-
versities with a vievr of presenting the vast
material authoritatively, and yet in a popular form,
to meet the great demand for a reliable work on the
subject on the part of Bible scholars as well as
students of ancient history.

CONTENTS

„THE RESURRECTION OF ASSYRIA AND

BABYLONIA” By Prof. H. V. Hilprecht

University of Pennsylvania

„PALESTINE” By Lie. Dr. Benzlnger

Formerly of the University of Berlin

„EGYPT” By Prof. Dr. Steindorff

University of Leipzig
„ARABIA” . . . . By Prof. Dr. Hommel

University of Munich
„HITTITES” . By Prof. Dr. Jensen

University of Marburg

The volume contains four specially prepared
maps and nearly 200 carefi(lly selected illustrations,
exhibiting the work and method of the different
expeditions in the trenches, the ruined and restored
temples and palaces, and the rich archaeological

material brought to light in the ancient Biblical
world during the past Century, special attention
being given to such antiquities as have a bearing
upon the Old Testament.

” Explorations in Bible Lands ” in one large
volume (octavo) consist of nearly 900 pages, 300 of
which are devoted to the first accurate account of
the history and epoch-making results of

‘Pie Babylonian Expedition

of tiie

University of Pennsylvania

By Its Scientific Director, PROF. HILPRECHT

HERE for the first time is presented a thorough
treatment of all the many important discov-
eries made at NIPPUR In connection with the
excavations of the great Temple of Bel, and its
storied-tower ; the Temple Library, with its educa-
tional and literary quarters; the walls and gates of
the city, palaces, business houses, etc., etc.
Published In one large volume
at $3.00 net

IF TRANSPORTATION IS TO BE PREPAID, ADD 40 CENTS

MAKE CHECKS, DRAFTS AND MONEY ORDERS PAYABLE TO

THE BABYLONIAN SECTION, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. PHILADELPHIA. PA.

Scientific Works

BY

PROFESSOR GEORGE FREDERICK WRIGHT. D. D., LL. D., F. G. S. A.,

Professor of tke HsLrmony of Science aivd Revelation in Oberlin College.

THE ICE AGE IN NORTH AMERICA,
and its Bearings Upon the Antiquity of
Man. With an Appendix on „The Probable
Cause of Glaciation.” By Warren Upham,
F. G. S. A., Assistant on the Geological Sur-
veys of New Hampshire, Minnesota and the
United States. Fourth and Enlarged Edition,
With 150 Maps and Illustrations. 8vo, 645
pages and Index, Cloth, ^5,

This Is without doubt one of the most important
contributions made of late yeai-s to the literature of
post-tertiary geology. — The Athenxum [Ijondon].

The most exhaustlre study yet made of the glacial
period In North America. — Chicago Times,

The volume is one of remarkable interest, and It
may be said to be the first in which the subject has
been exhaustively treated.— -Boston Tmnscrifpi.

Dr. Wright’s book is the most valuable contribution
that has been made in America to the study of gla-
ciation. — Sunday News [Charleston, S. C.].

The array of facts as detailed in Professor Wright’s
work, seem to the uninitiated like the discoveries of
the diviner’s loi.— Army and Navy Journal.

The arrangement and method of the work are ad-
mirable. The style is clear and interesting, the text
is beautifully Illustrated by many cuts and maps, all
well selected, and a large number of them new and
made expressly for this wovTi.— Christian Vnion.

Professor Wright has very clearly and strongly
grasped his subject and worked out its details with
an infinite amount of patience and painstaking. His
book is -the most important contribution to, American
geology which has been made by any American since
the death of Agasslz.— Boston Herald.

Though his subject is a very deep one, his style is
so very unaffected and perspicuous that even the un-
scientific reader can pursue It with intelligence and
profit. In reading such a book we are led almost to
wonder that so much that is scientific can be put in
language so comparatively simple.— JVew York Observer.

It is the result of years of indoor study and of out-
door personal investigation, and although it is inde-
pendent in reasoning and frank in expressions of
opinion, it is notably modest, cautious lest unwar-
rantable conclusions be suggested, and candid in the
statement of the views of others. It illustrates con-
spicuously the spirit and method of the true scien-
tist. — The Congregationaliet.

Professor Wright’s work is great enough to be
called monumental. There is not a page that is not
Instructive and suggestive. It is sure to make a rep-
utation abroad as well as at home for its distin-
guished author, as one of the most active and intelli-

gent of the living students of natural science and the
special department of glacial action. — Eoening Bulletin
[Philadelphia].

Not a novel has in It any pages of more thrilling
interest than can be found in this book by Professor
Wright. There is nothing pedantic In the narrative,
and the most serious themes and startling discoveries
are treated with such charming naturalness and sim-
plicity that boys and girls, as well as their seniors,
will be attracted to the story and find It diflicult to
lay it aside.— JbuTOoZ of Comvurce [New York].

This comprehensive volume will undoubtedly take
its place as the standard work for a long time on this
important subject. The author writes with more skill
than most geologists, while he wastes no space on fine
paragraphs. So much has been discovered of late
that a full treatise needed to be produced, and it is
matter for congratulation that the work has been
done so fairly, so skillfully and so attractively.- I^’ferorj/
Worm.

Dr. Wright is a professor of theology at Oberlin, as
well as a geologist, and it is significant of his wide de.
votlon to either profession that in a volume whose ul-
timate result is to establish an antiquity for man far
beyond that usually supposed to be given in the Scrip-
tures, he has refrained from making any illusions what-
ever to its theological bearings, beyond the brief pref-
atory remark that he sees „No reason why it should se-
riously disturb the religious faith, of any believer in
the inspiration of the Bible.” He shows a practical ap-
plication of his belief „that it is incumbent upon us
to welcome the truth from whatever source it may
come,” in the thoroughness with which he gives all
the observed facts that bear upon a given phenome-
non before his conclusions, as well as in his scrupu-
lousness In acknowledging the aid he has received
from fellow-workers, whether derived from their
writings or from personal communications. In both
these respects he presents an example worthy of im-
itation by fellow scientists.— IVie Nation.

The author has seen with Ms own eyes the most
Important phenomena of the ice age on this continent
from Maine to Alaska. In the work itself, e’.ementary
description is combined with a broad, scientific and
philosophic method without abandoning, for a mo-
ment, the purely scientific character. Professor
Wright has contrived to give the whole a philosophi-
cal direction, which lends interest and Inspiration to
it, and which in the chapters on Man and the Glacial
Period rises to something like dramatic Intehsity.—
The Independent.

A work worthy of the importance and interest of
his subject. It is not always, nor Indeed often, that
a work of pure science can be made both instructive
and attractive to readers not familiar vrith the prin-
ciples of the science Involved. In this instance, how-
ever, the subject naturally lends itself to what may
be styled popular treatment; and the author has aided
his explanations by a profusion of maps and pic-
tures, the latter mostly photographic, which render
his descriptions and consequent Inferences plain to
aniy’ readeir of ordinary Intelligence.— IKe Oriiic.

Sciervtific Works

BY

PROFESSOR GEORGE FREDERICK WRIGHT. D. D., LL. D.. F. G. S. A.

MAN AND THE GLACIAL PERIOD.
With an Appendix on „Tertiary Man,”
by Professor Henry W. Haynes. Interna-
tional Scientific Series. Fully Illustrated.
12nio, 385 pages, and Index. Cloth, $1.7′,.
Tenth Thousand.

The earlier chapter describing glacial action and the
traces of it in North America— especially the defining
of its limits, such as the terminal moraine of the
great movement Itself— are of great Interest and value.
The maps and diagrams are of much assistance In
enabling the reader to grasp the vast extent of the
movement. — London Spectator.

It may be described, in a word, as the best sum-
mary of scientific conclusions concerning the question
of man’s antiquity as affected by his known relations
to geological tiTae.—PhUaddphia Press.

As a’glacialist, the author of this volume stands
among the first, and his long study of that remark-
able period in the geologic history of our planet in-
vests all he says about it with uncommon authority.—
Science.

This important treatise gives the clearest of views
concerning the present state of progress in the de-
partment of inquiries concerning man’s antiquity. It
is a forcible presentation of the cycle of data on cli-
mate, time, geology, physiography and archaeology.—
PMadclpIda Ledger,

Professor Wright’s study of
action of glaciers is thorough,
for him to take his Information
visited many parts of the world
eyes glacial action. Besides all
advantage of having formed a
States Geological Survey. He
work a vast fund of practical
edge.— Jfe» York Times.

the past and present
It was not sufficient
from books. He has
, seeing with his own
this, he has the great
part of the United
brings, then, to this
and scientific knowl-

GREENLAND ICE FIELDS AND LIFE
IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC.

With a New Discussion of the Causes of the
Ice Age. Conjointly with Warren Upham,
A. M., F. G. S. A. With Numerous Maps
and Illustrations. l2mo, 407 pages, and In-
dex. Cloth, $2.

The Immediate impulse to the preparation of this
volume arose in connection with a trip to Greenland
by Prof. Wright In the summer of 1894, on the
steamer Miranda. The work aims to give within
moderate limits a comprehensive view of the scenery,

the glacial phenomena, the natural history, the peo-
ple and the explorations ot Greenland. The photo-
graphs are all original, and the maps have been pre-
pared to show the latest state of knowledge concern-
ing the region.

One of the most readable volumes of arctic travel
yet issued, one which enables the reader to obtain a
very satisfactory general view of one of the most
mysterious lands on the globe.— 2)e(m( Free Press.

No student of physical geography can afford to let
this book pass unread, and Its graphic descriptions
and numerous illustrations make it attractive to the
general reader.— iiterarj/ World.

The authors have prepared a most excellent work,
which deserves the widest circulation and most gen-
erous reception by the reading public. It is an honor
to American scholarship.— TAc Critic.

THE SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS OF
CHRISTIAN EVIDENCES, by G.
Frederick Wright, D. D., LL. D., F. G. S. A.,
Professor of the Harmony of Science and
Revelation, Oberlin College. Illustrated,
12mo. Cloth, p.^o.

It is refreshing, tranquilizing and invigorating to
consider border questions of science and religion under
the guidance of so competent an authority in both de-
partments as Prof. George Frederick Wright, of Ober-
lin, in a work so scholarly, judicial and in every way
satisfactory as his Scientific Aspects of Christian Evi-
dences, a volume which is an elaboration of his
Lowell Institute Lectures of 1896. Here is a Chris-
i tian scholar, who is expert in both fields, the material
and the spiritual, who does not rush off into sopho-
moric declamation on the one hand or into timid com-
promise on the other, but who in a manly and digni-
fied way grasps the facts, separates them from con-
jecture, puts harmonies In their relations, states ar-
guments in a form satisfactory to opponents, and re-
veals underlying grounds of agreement and unity. We
advise some empiric doctors of both science and di-
vinity to read and ponder such discourse as the book
contains as to Darwinism, evolution, the contradic-
tions and pai;adoxes of science, the deniable and the
undeniable of miracles, the real substance at the bot-
tom of the „New Criticism,” and that whole field in
which the charlatans and the quacks are disporting
themselves so freely these days, to the terror of the
weak-minded and the amusement of those who know
something. No truly equipped scientist will take se-
rious issue with Dr. Wright upon any important
point; no genuine theologian will complain of him for
Injustice to the truth. It is such granite blocks as
this, of intuition, argument and phenomena fairly in-
terpreted, that hold the ground against the current of
conjecture, fancy and rhetoric that plays so wildly
around the eternal verities.— iiterorj/ World.

PUBLISHED BY

D. APPLBTON & CO.,

72 Kifthi Avenue, NeA?v Yorlc City

JUST PUBLISHED

” By far the Best Work upon that Subject.” — Chicago Tribune

Asiatic Russia

By G. FREDERICK WRIGHT

With Ten Maps and Eighty-three Illustrations. In Two Volumes.
8vo. Pp. xxii, 290 and xii, 340. Net, $7.50 ; postpaid, $7.95. New
York: McClure, Phillips & Co. J902.

THE AUTHOR has used the observations made by himself on an
extensive trip through Asia as the basis of this work. The book is
not one of travels merely, but is a comprehensive treatise on the
Russian possessions in Asia. He takes up the Geography, Geology, Natural, ^
Political and Religious History, dividing it into the following five parts :

I. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
II. RUSSIAN OCCUPATION

III. POLITICAL DIVISIONS

IV. SOCIAL. ECONOMIC, and
POLITICAL CONDITIONS

V. NATURAL HISTORY

CONTENTS:

VOL. I. General Description; Trans-Caucasia; Aral-Caspian Depression; Arctic-Ocean
River Basins ; Arctic Littoral; Pacific Basin; Conquest of Siberia; Arrested Development; Occu-
pation of the Amur; of Turkestan; of Caucasia; Pre-Russian Colonization; Russian Colonization.

VOL. n. Russian Colonization (continued); Exile System; Trans-Caucasia; The Steppe;
Turkestan; Western Siberia; Eastern Siberia; Amur Region; Means of Communication;
Capacity for Development; Grounds for Confidence in the Future; Foreign Relations; Geo-
logical History; The Climate; Flora and Fauna; Index; Bibliography.

,. , . ‘.”^,^* ‘^°^^ ^^? whole is a valuable and remarkably comprehensive presentation of Siberian subjects of
all kinds. —Record-Herald (Chicago), July 14, 1902.

„Altogether these two volumes sum up the impressions of an exceptionally shrewd observer of political
and social conditions as affected by physical environment.”— TAe American Monthly Review of Reviews.
August, 1902, p. 251.

• w* *?. *^°””’^”‘ ‘^ ^^^’■^ ‘s a man in the world better equipped for the purpose than Professor George Fred-
erick Wright. . . . It IS a work of the highest interest— one that ought to be read by all who desire to
know about a race which has ever been on terms of friendship with us, and one with which we are destined to
come into closer relations in the i-atmt.”— Inquirer (Philadelphia), June 22, 1902.

„Professor Wright’s book is more comprehensive in its scope than any that have heretofore appeared,
and has a field of its o^n.”— Springfield Republican, June 8, 1902.

Tu „^P'” *’ J.^^^* ^ ”°°” has been written upon the subject which is satisfying and complete

Ihe reading public already knows from the interesting little skits of previous writers that no part of the world
holds more picturesque and historic interest than does this. But it can have no idea of how deep and how

world-embracing is this interest until it has read what Dr. Wright has written about it It is difficult

to see how any library can get along without Wright’s Asiatic Russia. Certainly the subject is one of the most
vital in the world. And, equally certain, this is by far the best work upon that subject.”— Trttun* (Chicago),
July S, 1902. \ o /

^An Archaeologicdi.1 Tour to Greece and Itawly

T”fram°t’hefr^^l|.”^?.*^i’*’^’^””,^°”='”‘J^”‘=*”‘ of the American School at Athens in 1897-1899.

■riven S^HL’^aM^ from New York for Naples about June asd, and go first to Greece, to which at least five weeks will be
Cane^kn^^f^Z r,.,u”%., Y’c’nity, the party will probably visit Nauplia. Epidauros, Tiryns, Mycene, Corinth, Eleusis,
fn It r ‘ ” , P*”‘ O’y^P’a, ^tolia and Corfu, and possibly places of interest in Thessaly.
Rpinrninp- the T^rt„Zut To- w °’^ ™S”* 1^'” ^^ ^iven to Rome and vicinity and the remaining time to Pompeii, Pffistum, Naples and vicinity.
Mediterranean ?oute ” ”^°”‘ September 2d, reaching New York about September 15th, both voyages being by the

The cost of the tour vijill be, as in 1902, but I475, which includes all necessary expenses for travel, living and sight-seeing.
AS the size ot the party is limited and places are already taken, applications should be made at an early date.
T I ‘P’Pi5″°’f°^)°”” IS endorsed by leading educators such as Profs. John Williams White, of Harvard; T. D. Seymour, of Yale-
J. irvmg -■uanatt, ot Brown, and M. L. D’Ooge, of Michigan University, and the feasibility of summer travel in Greece and Italy was
demonstrated by the experience of the party ita 1902. = j ■ .7 j «»=

For further information and circulars, address

ARTHUR STODDARD COOLEY, Ph.D.

387 Central Street, Auburndale, Mass.

THOMAS FORSYTHE NELSON

Genealogical Scientist

THE professional services of Mr. Nelson may be obtained in tracing any line of family descent, however intri-
cate or indefinite the known facts may be ; especially where exhaustive search must be made through local,
town, county or state records, either in the United States or in Europe.
A special effort is made in every case to gather all possible data that would be of value, from a scientific
standpoint, in determining the development and transmission of family traits or characteristics, either mental
or physical ; to cite the historical and sociological environment of each individual head of family and thus enable
descendants to study and know something more of their ancestry than is found in a mere catalogue of ancestral lines.

Consultation and preliminary investigation will be made free of charge, and correspondence is desired with any
person interested in, or wishing to pursue any line of genealogical research. Personal interview may be arranged for
by correspondence. Address

”^'”^'”‘E^lftrotR^H’cCn^oKTHHPAST ‘ P. O. Box 473. Washingtoii. D. C.

The Genealogical Quarterly Magazine

AMAGAZINEj well printed, carefully edited, and intended as a repository of
records valuable for genealogical purposes.
Printing is the only way of preserving our records. The longer the
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Bibliotheca Sacra, Vol. LVIII, 1901

Contains the first of the series of articles by Professor G. Frederick Wright, bearing on the
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Physical Preparation for Israel in Palestine : The Crossing of the
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Sunset from Walpi

THE GREATEST TRIUMPH IN PHOTOGRAPHY

THE FIRST TIME THE SUN HAS EVER
BEEN SUCCESSFULLY PHOTOGRAPHED

|URING the last week of August, 1902, Dr. Baum, the Editor
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region, visited the Pueblo villages of the Hopi Indians at and near
Walpi, Arizona. One afternoon while on the Walpi Mesa, the sky
became overcast with clouds from a spent storm in the distant
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Bibliotheca Sacra is now in its 73d year, and is the oldest quarterly published in the United
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LL.D., of Oberlin College, it has reached the highest standard of scholarship, and the widest treat-
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January, April, July and October. Each issue contains 200 octavo pages.

Professor Wright’s fullest statement of the facts discovered during his recent trip through Central
Asia bearing on the credibility of the Noachian deluge will be given in the Bibliotheca Sacra for 1903-

PARTIAL CONTENTS OF THE

Bibliotheca Sacra, Vol. LIX, 1902

Janueiry Huxley and Phillips Brooks. Prof. William Newton Clarke, D.D.
^13:^ Witchcraft and the Old Testament. Rev. Charles Edward Smith, D.D.

The Steel Strike (I) Prof. Ernest Ludlow Bogart.

Professor Paine on the Trinities. Prof. Frank Hugh Foster, D.D., Ph.D.

Plenty and Famine in Egypt. Prof. G. Frederick Wright, D.D., LL.D.

An Oberlin Interpreter of Ritschl. Rev. A. A. Berle, D.D.

Why Did Amos Predict the Captivity ? Prof. E. E. Braithwaite.

April The Latest Translation of the Bible (I). Rev. Henry M. Whitney.
^ZZ^Z The Supernatural. Ex-Pres. John Bascom, D.D., LL.D.

The Growing Socialism. Rev. Andrew Burns Chalmers.

The Steel Strike (II). Prof Ernest Ludlow Bogart.

Higher Criticism and Messianic Prophecy. Rev. Edward Hartley Dewart, D.D.

A Study of Mormonism (I). Rev. George R. Lunn.

July Resurrection 3000-4000 B. C. and the Old Testament. Prof. Howard Osgood, D. D.
ZZIZ^l A Study of Mormonism (II). Rev. George R. Lunn.

The Latest Translation of the Bible (H). Rev. Henry M. Whitney.

A. D. Harnack’s „Essence of Christianity. ” O. Zockler (Translation).

Christian Charity of the Twentieth Century Church. Rev. H. Francis Perry.

Reaction Between Natural Science and Religion. Prof. Frederick W. Sardeson, Ph.D.

Of Speci».l Timeliness are Prof. G. Frederick Wright’s articles on the Flood in the April, July and October Numbers.
April No. — Interpretation of the Biblical Account.

July N o.— Considers the vast amount of evidence which has recently come to light showing that there has been
& period of instability of the earth’s crust extending down to comparatively recent times, which, from a
scientific point of view, renders the scriptural accounts of the Flood easily credible.

October No.— Presents ihe^ positive geological evidences going to show that some such wide-spread catastrophe as the
Flood has actually occurred since tnan came into the world.

«

Back Numbers of BIBLIOTHECA and RECORDS OF THE PAST can be furnished

___H!i|i<l__,

I

i

I
i
i
I

m^m ^m^m^m^m^m ^m^wd^mmim

CLIFF PALACE, MESA VERDE, COLORADO

^MM^^^^^^M^^^M^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The ^^liff and Pueblo Ruins

Are Most Convenient!}'

ef Colorado, New Mexico
Arizona and Utah

Reached by Way of

RECOGNIZING the great interest which has lately been aroused in these wonderful ruins,
we have made such reduced railroad rates as will enable visitors to reach these marvelous
structures with the least possible expenditure of time and money.
The railroad rate is $28.00 for the round trip from Denver, Colorado Springs and
Pueblo, which applies to most of the points from which the various cliff dwellings can
be reached, This route also covers the famous "Around the Circle" tour, which comprises more
noted scenery than any similar trip in the world.

Tickets are on sale from May to October of each year and are good sixty days from date of
sale, permitting stop-overs at all points. Transcontinental tourists may secure a reduced rate for
side-trip tickets on presentation of their through tickets to the agents at Denver, Colorado Springs,
Pueblo, Salida or Montrose, thus affording all who desire to do so an opportunity to visit the won-
derful ruins. For free illustrated booklets, address

S. K. HOOPER

General Passenger and Ticket Agent DENVER, COL.

Sursa: http://archive.org/stream/cu31924060109703/cu31924060109703_djvu.txt

Apel al Sinodului mitropolitan al Mitropoliei Moldovei şi Bucovinei pentru consolidarea statutului tradițional al familiei și al căsătoriei

Noi, membrii Sinodului mitropolitan al Mitropoliei Moldovei și Bucovinei, în cadrul ședinței de lucru din data de 12 iunie 2013, care a avut loc la Mănăstirea Neamț, lavra istorică a isihasmului românesc, am luat act cu bucurie față de demersul Patriarhiei Române, care a înaintat o serie de propuneri către comisia de revizuire a Constituției, între care și cea privind definirea familiei ca întemeindu-se pe căsătoria liber consimțită „între un bărbat și o femeie”. În acest context, ne declarăm îngrijorați de respingerea, de către această comisie, a unei astfel de clarificări, absolut necesare în contextul lumii de azi, cu atât mai mult cu cât, anterior, aceeași membri votaseră pentru o astfel de definiție. Acceptând actuala formulă din Constituție, aceasta ar putea deschide perspectiva legiferării „căsătoriilor” între persoanele de același sex. Noțiunea de „soți” care apare acum în definirea constituțională a căsătoriei, lasă deschisă, din păcate, această posibilitate.

În slujirea noastră de păstori ai poporului lui Dumnezeu din Moldova, nu putem tăcea și rămâne indiferenți față de perspectiva unei mari decăderi, aceea de a strica rostul ființial al omului de a se uni, bărbat și femeie, în sfânta taină a căsătoriei. Totodată, îndemnăm la veghe, în duh de rugăciune și de mărturisire, față de un proces mereu crescând de păgânizare a societății, având ca reper valori zis a fi moderne, superioare.

Ierarhii Mitropoliei Moldovei și Bucovinei, în numele milioanelor de credincioși, clerici și monahi, cuprinși în eparhiile pe care le slujesc, cheamă pe cei responsabili de alcătuirea textului Constituției să nu se îndepărteze de o viziune asupra căsătoriei pe care o are majoritatea covârșitoare a celor care i-au votat și pe care-i reprezintă în forul legiuitor al țării. O schimbare de poziție asupra acestui subiect, reflectată în Constituţie sau într-o lege ulterioară, ar plasa senatorii și deputații în contradicție evidentă față de convingerea celor pe care-i reprezintă în Parlament. S-ar încălca, astfel, o regulă elementară a democrației, care presupune să se exercite puterea în numele și în conformitate cu voința poporului care i-a ales.

Considerăm că schimbarea viziunii asupra instituției familiei va conduce, prin ultimele sale consecințe, la desfigurarea acestei națiuni, prin relativizare morală și prin încurajarea promiscuității sexuale, cu efecte extrem de nocive mai ales asupra copiilor sau tinerilor. Suprimarea statutului actual al familiei și al căsătoriei ne-ar face, astfel, vinovați, în fața lui Dumnezeu și a neamului românesc, de o greșeală fără precedent și ne-ar plasa pe o direcţie ce afectează demnitatea umană şi nu are nimic moral şi sfânt.

IPS Teofan,

Mitropolitul Moldovei şi Bucovinei

IPS Pimen,

Arhiepiscop al Sucevei şi Rădăuţilor

PS Corneliu,

Episcop al Huşilor

PS Calinic Botoșăneanul,

Episcop Vicar al Arhiepiscopiei Iaşilor

PS Ioachim Băcăuanul,

Episcop Vicar al

Arhiepiscopiei Romanului şi Bacăului

Sursa: http://www.doxologia.ro/actualitate/arhiepiscopia-iasilor/comunicat-de-presa

Promovarea homosexualitatii prin divertisment
2013-09-06 15:00

„Promovarea homosexualitatii prin divertisment

“Gandeste liber!” sau reeducarea soft prin filme si TV

In lumea totalitara a lui Orwell, impunerea minciunii si controlul gandirii se manifestau intr-o maniera brutala, plina de silnicie. Astfel, departamentul ce se ocupa cu propaganda se numea “Ministerul Adevarului”, iar lozincile sale se caracterizau prin contradictia flagranta fata de realitate: “Razboiul inseamna pace”, suna una dintre cele mai cunoscute.

Modelul acesta de control al gandirii nu da prea multe alternative omului: fie se va lasa complet spalat pe creier, renuntand la propria gandire si adoptand, mecanic, propaganda oficiala – fie va gandi pe cont propriu, ceea ce e totuna cu a gandi subversiv…

O lume totalitara de acest gen, prin insasi natura sa, nu poate dura mult timp. Ea poate subzista, fara a se prabusi, doar in conditii extreme: razboi extern, teroare interna. Cand aceste conditii inceteaza, societatea totalitara va cunoaste regimul “dublu-gandirii”: pe de o parte, frazeologia oficiala si propaganda regimului, pe de alta parte gandirea oamenilor si regimul vietii cotidiene, obisnuite. Spre exemplu, cei care au apucat vremurile regimului communist dinainte de 1989 isi pot aduce aminte ca nimeni nu lua de buna propaganda oficiala. Toata lumea stia ca prin intermediul postului public de televiziune si a putinelor ziare se imprastia sistematic minciuna, deci nimeni nu se obosea sa o ia macar in serios.

Dupa 1989, societatea romaneasca a experimentat din plin un alt model de control al gandirii, mult mai eficient decat cel orwellian. Acesta, spre deosebire de cel anterior, nu se bazeaza pe coercitie, frica sau teroare, ci pe placere. Nu actioneaza prin silnicie, ci prin atractie. Nu foloseste metode dure de manipulare, ci metode soft, care se bazeaza pe consimtamantul celor vizati. Deasemenea, acest model nu este direct politic, ca in cazul anterior, ci indirect, caci principalul sau obiectiv tine de manipularea psihologiei sociale a grupului “tinta” si de modificarea mentalitatilor – realizate insa, cel putin in cazul unor tari periferice ca a noastra, cu scopul satisfacerii intereselor marilor puteri (fenomenul se numeste colonizare culturala si am mai discutat despre el in numerele anterioare). Mijloacele sale de realizare sunt, insa, nepolitice: televizorul si divertismentul.

Daca in modelul orwellian succesul reeducarii consta in obtinerea unei persoane lipsite de individualitate, depersonalizare, conformiste pana la lipsa de gandire proprie, in modelul reeducarii soft succesul consta in obtinerea unui individ “dezinhibat”, “nonconformist”, “emancipat”, “diferit’, care se imbraca si se comporta “asa cum simte” si nu asa cum ii dicteaza normele sociale. Ghilimelele sunt intentionate, pentru ca, in realitate, individul “dezinhibat” si “nonconformist” al reeducarii soft prin televizor si divertisment este transormat intr-o plastilina, modelata dupa bunul plac al “regizorilor” de opinie si al stilului de viata vandut prin reclame. Aici este, de fapt, marea perversitate a modelului: sa-i influentezi pe oameni sa gandeasca, sa se imbrace si sa se comporte asa cum le dictezi, facandu-i, totodata, sa creada ca sunt liberi si ca la mijloc este vorba de alegerea lor.

Varf de lance al reeducarii soft in Romania a fost, in deceniile de post-comunism, canalul privat de televiziune ProTV. Bineinteles ca, in ultima instanta, majoritatea televiziunilor practica acest model de control al gandirii, insa ca importanta, impact si metoda, ProTV se distinge in mod deosebit. Si-a propus explicit modelarea tinerilor, daca ar fi sa amintim numai vestita sa campanie “Generatia PRO”. Sloganul televiziunii este, de asemenea, extrem de sugestiv: “Gandeste liber!”.

Dornici sa-si pastreze acest rol de avangarda in reeducarea culturala a romanilor, cei de la ProTV s-au gandit sa atace frontal o tema fata de care societatea romaneasca este inca “conformista”: homosexualitatea. Este vorba despre o emisiune de divertisment intitulata “Patru nunti s-o provocare”, in cadrul careia, dupa cum au rasuflat “pe surse” realizatorii, va fi prezentata si “nunta” unui cuplu de homosexuali ce a beneficiat si de “serviciul religios” al unei “preotese” adusa special pentru acest rol de ProTV. Nimic intamplator in acest atentat cultural, dupa cum vom detalia in continuare.

Context. Mize

Lansarea acestei emisiuni care intra in flagranta contradictie cu mentalitatea, totusi, inca conservatoare a societatii romanesti cu privire la relatiile homosexuale, are loc intr-un context politic – chiar geopolitic, dupa cum vom vedea – in care chestiunea homosexualitatii s-a pus inclusiv la nivel constitutional.

Asa cum am reflectat in paginile revistei, clasa politica a initiat un vast proces de revizuire a Constitutiei. Gruparile de lobbyhomosexual au cautat sa profite la maximum de aceasta “oportunitate” si au sprijinit amendamente favorabile (cum ar fi cel care interzice discriminarea pe orice tip de criteriu, ceea ce inseamna inclusiv pe baza de “orientare sexuala”) sau au blocat (cu largul concurs al unor forte politice interne, de la presedinte la premier, precum si al unora externe, precum Ambasada S.U.A.) amendamente pro-familie (care consfinteau definirea normala a familiei, ca insotirea dintre barbat si femeie).

A izbucnit un intens scandal mediatico-politic, in care O.N.G.-urile pro-homosexualitate, cu un larg sprijin institutional occidental, au declansat “jihadul” impotriva Bisericii si a societatii civile crestine, atacand la baioneta “fascismul ortodoxist” al celor care au propus protejarea familiei normale prin Constitutie. Sinodul Bisericii Ortodoxe Romane, in replica, si-a asumat obiectivul oficial al definirii familiei normale in Constitutie, iar diferiti episcopi au criticat dur fortele politice potrivnice acestui deziderat. Asa cum am mentionat, Ambasada S.U.A. s-a implicat direct in aceste controverse, sustinand in mod sistematic agenda homosexualilor, ca parte a politicii sale diplomatice. Mai mult decat atat, O.N.G.-urile au santajat, practic, Romania, cu Raportul de Tara al Departamentului de Stat al S.U.A. (echivalentul Ministerului de Externe), raport care face o evaluare a respectarii drepturilor omului de catre diferite tari din lume si care functioneaza, de fapt, ca un puternic instrument de presiune americana pe plan international. Pe plan intern, “Consiliul National pentru Combaterea Discriminarii” a sustinut, la randul sau, cu toate fortele, acest lobby.

Este impresionanta aceasta desfasurare de forte recapitulata aici pe scurt, care are ca obiectiv impunerea casatoriilor homosexuale sau, “macar”, a parteneriatelor civile intre homosexuali. Aceasta presiune are, insa, un “defect”:se manifesta doar la nivel institutional-politic si exista un oarecare risc de creare a unei rupturi fata de societate – care s-ar putea simti, inca odata, total instrainata de “reformele” politice si constitutionale. O instrainare care poate crea sau adauga tensiunilor deja existente in societate si care poate duce, in anumite conditii, la crearea unui curent de opozitie sociala fata de transformarile programatice la care este supusa Romania.

Totusi, dupa cum arata si sondajele, majoritatea romanilor vad ca legitima implicarea Bisericii pe tema homosexualitatii si considera indreptatita mentionarea acesteia sau a lui Dumnezeu in Constitutia tarii. Implicarea Bisericii Ortodoxe Romane in problema revizuirii Constitutiei si a protejarii familiei poate crea, pentru structurile de putere care guverneaza tara, un neplacut precedent in care “reformele” si “modernizarea” de tip euro-atlantic ar fi respinse pe considerente de mentalitate traditionala. Ar fi, de asemenea, un precedent in care societatea autohtona, poate pentru prima oara, si-ar cere propriile sale drepturi si si-ar afirma propria sa identitate, respingand agendele straine dizolvante.

Lucrurile sunt complicate si din cauza rivalitatii celor doi poli de putere mondiala: S.U.A. si U.E. versus Rusia lui Putin. Rusia a adoptat cateva legi impotriva propagandei homosexuale (fara sa incrimineze homosexualitatea ca atare), intr-o actiune de diferentiere ideologica explicita fata de lumea euro-atlantica. Noi, aflati la periferia imperiului European si anexa a S.U.A., suntem cu atat mai mult expusi acestui conflict ideologic – afirmarea drepturilor homosexualilor fiind, asadar, un semn de apartenenta la complexul de putere euro-atlantic, pe cand o legislatie pro-familie ar fi un semn ambiguu, daca nu de apropiere de “lagarul” eurasiatic al Rusiei, atunci macar de veleitati de independenta pe anumite domenii.

Este important de precizat totusi ca alti membri ai complexului euro-atlantic din aceeasi zona ca noi si-au pastrat identitatea spirituala – vezi exemplele Poloniei, Greciei si Bulgariei, care nu sunt supuse unor presiuni similare. Tine, deci, si de abilitatea si vointa elitei politice locale ca identitatea nationala sa nu devina obiect de negociere…

Acesta fiind contextul, miza unei emisiuni care popularizeaza homosexualitatea devine evidenta. Presiunea institutionala este dublata de propaganda perfida si insidioasa prin intermediul divertismentului, prin care o “valoare” respinsa initial de societate incepe sa devina acceptata, “tolerata”, pentru ca in final sa devina asumata ca normalitate.

Reeducarea prin divertismentul TV, ca factor de acceptare sociala a homosexualitatii

Reiau un mesaj al initiatorului petitiei S.O.S. familia! (pe care va invit sa o consultati la http://www.petitieonline.com/a/56798) si as sugera ca el sa fie distribuit pe cat mai multe bloguri/siteuri/afise publice etc. pentru informarea cetatenilor.

In S.U.A. se desfasoara, in prezent, una din cele mai puternice si sistematice ofensive in favoarea adoptarii legislatiilor pro-homosexualitate. Lucrul cel mai important este insa faptul ca la nivelul opiniei publice s-a constatat o puternica schimbare de mentalitate in doar zece ani, homosexualitatea devenind acceptata social de o majoritate a americanilor.

Care a fost factorul determinant al acestei schimbari? Intr-un studiu recent al Pew Research Center, ce cauta motivele pentru care o proportie a americanilor anterior defavorabili casatoriei homosexuale s-a “razgandit” intre timp, printre raspunsurile relevante la aceasta intrebare, s-au retinut urmatoarele:

“Am devenit mai deschis / M-am gandit mai mult” (25%)

“E ceva inevitabil” (18%)

“Oricine e liber sa aleaga” (18%).

Aparent, schimbarea de mentalitate ar fi spontana si ar fi rezultatul unei “emancipari” a indivizilor, a eliberarii de normele sociale conservatoare. Doc Sweitzer, un consultant politic al Democratilor (partidul care sustine agenda gay) “citeste” diferit sondajul: “Iata raspunsul: televiziunea! E cel mai mare instrument de socializare din toate timpurile. (…) Homosexualii sunt prezentati in tot felul de emisiuni intr-o lumina pozitiva, de la la (seriale populare americane – n.n.). sunt aratati ca fiind niste oameni care vor doar sa-si traiasca viata linistiti” (cf. WashingtonPost.com). Avand aceasta constatare in minte, devine limpede ce e cu raspunsurile date de americanii care s-au razgandit in privinta sustinerii casatoriilor homosexuale: practic, sunt lozincile cu care au fost hraniti de industria TV, de serialele preferate, deshow-urile favorite – sunt acele lozinci care le-au modelat insidios gandirea, facandu-i sa creada ca e vorba de propriile ganduri, credinte, convingeri…

Sa ne amintim, de pilda, de filmul “Philadelphia” (1993), premiat cu Oscar si beneficiind de o distributie cu actori mari si carismatici ca Tom Hanks si Denzel Washington. A fost primul blockbuster (film de mare success) in care homosexualitatea a fost promovata ca un lucru normal, ba chiar eroic, avand in vedere “homofobia” societatii si viata ascunsa pe care acestia o duceau. Reteta unor astfel de filme este, de fapt, aceeasi: o practica (sexuala in acest caz) anterior respinsa social este prezentata intr-o lumina favorabila, chiar cool (ca si ceva demn, de care poti fi mandru, cu care daca te afisezi devii mai popular), folosindu-se actori indragiti de public, care prin interpretarea lor provoaca empatie fata de personajele homosexuale din “poveste”.

Avem in fata o reeducare-tip care, ca si la romanescul ProTV, consta in principiul “gandeste liber – adica gandeste cum iti spunem noi”. O strategie subtila, prin care gusturile si opiniile sunt induse tocmai sub aparenta emanciparii si a libertatii de optiune. Conformismul intr-o societate guvernata de controlul social spontan este inlocuit cu un conformism indus programatic prin socializarea via televizor (si, in anii din urma, via internet). In primul caz avem de-a face cu reguli de comportament care au fost probate secole de-a randul si care sunt asumate de individ in urma unui proces lent de formarea persoanlitatii si caracterului. In al doilea caz, avem de-a face cu o programare a gusturilor, opiniilor si noilor reguli de comportament prin sugestii hipnotice, transmise televizual, care fac apel la patimi.

O spune chiar celebrul Aldous Huxley, care a analizat mai indeaproape propaganda prin divertisment in cartea “Reintoarcere in minunata lume noua”, ulterioara celebrei sale distopii. Huxley remarca “pofta aproape nelimitata a oamenilor de a avea parte de divertisment” – lucru speculat prin TV intr-o maniera fara precedent in istoria umanitatii. Huxley considera ca acest lucru se facea in mod intentionat de catre “Marea Finanta” pentru “a-i impiedica pe oameni sa dea prea mare atentie realitatilor situatiei sociale si politice”.

In acest sens, reeducarea prin televizor, din pacate, a facut deja ravagii in tara noastra. Ajunge sa ne uitam la tinerii nostri – dar nu numai! – , la cat de comune au devenit stereotipiile de genul “sa fim deschisi la minte”, “e treaba lor / e alegerea lor” (evident ca e alegerea fiecaruia ce face cu viata lui, dar valorile sociale sunt o “treaba” si o “alegere” comuna!), “asa merg lucrurile acum” (adica e inevitabila noua “moralitate” a desfranarilor nefiresti) etc. In plus, conform unui sondaj recent, romanii sunt pe primul loc la consumul de TV pe plan european!

Ce se poate face impotriva unei astfel de reeducari? Punctual, prin procese publice si demersuri institutional-juridice fata de intentia ProTV de realizare a unei emisiuni de larga audienta prin care se popularizeaza “casatoria homosexual”. Exista deja cateva initiative in acest sens, demarate de cateva organizatii crestine.

La un nivel mai general, insa, trebuie sa ne raspundem singuri la cateva intrebari: Ce schimbare in bine ne-a adus televizorul in ultimii douazeci si trei de ani de viata? Este astazi familia noastra mai unita, mai puternica? Sunt copiii nostri mai bine realizati, cu o capacitate de munca, cu o motivatie si o mai mare putere de a razbate in viata? Ne-a adus televizorul mai multa liniste si pace in viata? Ne-a dezvoltat cumva atentia si concentrarea, memoria si initiativa sau celelalte abilitati mentale? Ne simtim oare mai impliniti in viata, mai multumiti de cele pe care le avem sau le-am trait in ultimii ani? Si intrebarile pot continua…

Iar daca vom raspunde sincer la aceste intrebari am facut primul pas in demitizarea propagandei lui “gandeste liber”, nu altfel decat reinvatand noi insine sa gandim pe cont propriu. Poate ca noul demers al ProTV-ului este o provocare pe care Dumnezeu a ingaduit-o tocmai pentru a constientiza ca cei care adesea ne-au distrat, socat sau excitat nu fac altceva decat sa ne modeleze gandirea, sa ne conditioneze pavlovian raspunsurile pe care le doresc de la noi. Sau, chiar mai mult, pentru a ne trezi sau a se desparti apele, prin pozitionarea noastra: pro TV sau pro Dumnezeu…

Nu exista cale de mijloc decat pentru cei care nu L-au cunoscut cu adevarat pe Hristos, desi inca isi mai zic crestini, dar care in ultimele doua decenii s-au parasit pe sine pentru a fi impreuna cu lumea. Sa ne luptam “lupta cea buna”, asadar, pentru copiii nostri, pentru familia noastra, lepadandu-ne de cel care ne-a subjugat in ultimii ani, dar care acum isi arata mai cu neobrazare si nerusinare adevarata fata – televizorul.”

Redactor Ioan Bucur, un articol de exceptie, dupa parerea mea, abia aparut in numarul de septembrie 2013 al Revistei “Familia Ortodoxa”.

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